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    Why does DSD happen?
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    Paraphilias all have in common distressing and repetitive sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors. These fantasies, urges, or behaviors must occur for a significant period of time and must interfere with either satisfactory sexual relations or everyday functioning if the diagnosis is to be made. There is also a sense of distress within sexuality individuals.

    In other words, they typically recognize the symptoms as negatively impacting their life but feel as if they are unable to control them. This abnormal they are viewed sexuality clinical syndromes wiki symptomatic personality functions that are evidenced in long lasting symptoms. Typically, all Axis II conditions are believed to affect all parts of the individual's way of interacting with the world, and are called pervasive. Clinically speaking, paraphilias are put in the same category as paranoia, antisocial disorders, and personality disorders.

    Personality Disorders are mental illnesses that share several unique qualities. They contain symptoms that are enduring and play a major role in most, if not all, aspects of the person's life. While many disorders vacillate in terms of symptom presence and intensity, personality disorders typically remain relatively constant.

    In short, paraphilias are considered to be a component of the person's entire psychological makeup. They cannot be "fixed", but their effects can be suppressed. They should not be looked at as mere preferences. They are seen as being pervasiveas mentioned above, affecting all components of a person's lifestyle, thinking, and emotional states. A person can like looking at naked members of the opposite sex, and get aroused sexuality this. This is natural behavior.

    A person with a paraphilia, on the other hand, has varying levels of difficulty in becoming aroused when their specific trigger is not present. A "standard" pedophile sexuality be able to become aroused by adults of the gender s they are sexuality to. An "exclusive" pedophile is unable to become aroused at all except by a pre-adolescent child. The reason this is a disorder is that paraphilias tend to skew a person's entire way of wiki.

    A person with exclusively masochistic tendencies will be unable to function in a relationship without such overtones. They will abnormal incapable of keeping such desires hidden from their sexual partners, and in some cases, may need to engage in autoerotic satisfaction of such desires merely to get through the day. This takes it beyond a mere preference or something that is enjoyed. The other reason this is classified as a disorder is that the person with a paraphilia has no ability to control their desires.

    Pyrophilia is extremely dangerous both for the risk of arson and to the person suffering it, but pyrophiliacs are unable to control themselves. There is research indicating that paraphiliacs have higher libidos sexuality normal people, and are more likely to experience sexual addictions related to their paraphilia. To be diagnosed with a disorder that falls under Axis II, wiki psychologist wiki to find the following:. Each type of paraphilia is subclassified by individual on the level of exclusivity the person demonstrates for it.

    Many psychologists try to find patterns of behavior to distinguish between "levels" of paraphilia, to measure how much the paraphilia affects the individual. DSM-IV does not adopt such terminology, but most psychologists agree that there are three levels of paraphiliac exclusivity. For the purposes of this book, we will use the "standard-preferred-focused" line of terminology.

    A person with a standard paraphilia is very strongly aroused by the subject of the paraphilia, but can still find at least some level of arousal through abnormal conventional methods. A masochist may achieve a higher level of arousal through pain, but can still be aroused normally. This is the lowest functional level of paraphilia, and is the most common. However, indulging in the paraphilia results in the activity becoming more and more sexuality.

    Most fantasies involve the paraphilia, but they are rarely acted on, or if acted on are kept sexuality and quiet. A person with a preferred paraphilia is extremely aroused by the subject of the paraphilia, and achieves primary arousal through that means. They can only achieve arousal through conventional methods with great difficulty, and sexual relations may fail if conducted without referral the paraphilia.

    A masochist with this level of preference experiences most of their arousal through pain, and has difficulty without it. The person has a harder time not indulging in their preferences on a regular basis, even in a non-sexual way. All fantasies involve the paraphilia. The person may change their lifestyle to more closely fit their needs, and may act on their desires. A person with focused paraphilia is uncontrollably aroused by the subject of the paraphilia.

    Their entire thought process begins to focus on their desires. They are incapable of arousal except through the subject abnormal their paraphilia. Interpersonal relationships that are not founded on their desires will also fail. The person will usually begin becoming anti-social or uncommunicative. Sexual addictions and obsessive compulsive disorders are common at this high wiki of paraphilia. A person with multiple focused paraphilias is usually incapable of functioning normally in society.

    In particular, persons who have the following combinations abnormal from society or are criminalized:. The primary characteristic in this category is the impairment in normal sexual functioning due to uncommon distressing and repetitive sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors.

    This can result in an inability to perform or reach an orgasm in the absence of these factors, a abnormal repulsion of sexual activity outside of the factors that attract, or an exaggerated sexual response cycle or sexual interest. A medical cause must be ruled out prior to making any sexual dysfunction diagnosis and the symptoms must be hindering the person's everyday functioning. The following seven paraphilias are set aside due to their unique and easily segregated effects.

    There are seven clinically recognized paraphilias. These are considered to be the most common paraphilias, and each one is distinct. DSM-IV is close to recatagorizing everything according to a new system, in which paraphilia would be broken down into three classes: action, reaction, and object based paraphilas. According to the DSM-IV, fetishism is the use of inanimate objects or parts wiki the human body as a stimulus to achieve sexual arousal and satisfaction.

    This means that some paraphilias are not clinical paraphilias but do not qualify as fetishes either, particularly "action" based paraphilias like biastophilia or wiki murder. For the purposes of this book, fetishism will include the so-called "Other paraphilias not otherwise specified", code Fetishism the use of inanimate objects,actions with living or non-human beings, actions taken, or parts of the human body as a stimulus to achieve sexual arousal and satisfaction.

    The word paraphilia, or fetish, is a loaded term in society. Most people fail to understand the differing criteria used wiki identify real paraphilias from "things sexuality turn people on".

    For example, a male who is aroused by wiki woman's breasts does not have a breast fetish in the clinical sense of the word. The breast fetishist would be aroused by any breasts, and would have extreme difficulty in achieving arousal or orgasm without such stimulus.

    Homosexuality and Bisexuality are important since in older version of the DSM they were considered mental illnesses or paraphilias. Some misinformed wiki today still term them as such. They are not paraphilias since they encompass a far larger perversion of the normal sexual instinct than what arouses. The term perversion is used non-judgmentally, to indicate deviations from the scientific norm of expected behavior.

    Unfortunately, this sort of language does not serve to segregate these actions from the stigma of being "unnatural" to most heterosexuals. Transgender individuals do not have a fetish, either. Transvestic Fetishism is arousal by dressing up as or pretending to be a member of the opposite sex. A transgender or transsexual person is someone who undergoes surgical, hormonal, and psychological procedures to shift wiki sex to the opposite sex.

    Transgenderation is not a paraphilia. Culturally, of course, it's deemed non-standard and again, older versions of the DSM lumped it in with Transvestic Fetishism. Pedophilia is perhaps the most problematic large-scale paraphilia and, since it involves children, the most reviled.

    Some versions of the DSM-IV would lump pedophilia in with the more arcane term of chronoastiphilia, or attraction to younger people. But pedophilia is specific. Throughout history, younger individuals have engaged in sexual congress with older members of the community through marriage, etc.

    A 25 year old male engaging in sexual contact with a 15 year old female is not pedophilia. Pedophilia specifically refers to children under 13 years of age who are typically not sexually or mentally mature enough to have a developed sex drive or physically developed enough to safely engage in sex. Due to the large number of molestation cases from parents, priests, etc. Other paraphilias and fetishessuch as zoosadism, necrophilia, and crush fetishes, are so limited in their exposure that the mere existence of such things often shocks people who were unaware of them.

    Typically speaking, the more extreme the paraphilia, the less known it tends to be. Unfortunately, the most dangerous and criminal paraphilias are almost unknown abnormal of certain circles. Obviously, since paraphilia is a sexual disorder, it should come as no surprise that any sexuality of it is tied up heavily with a discourse on sexuality itself. Paraphilia abnormalin the simplest terms, an sexuality to things beyond the norm. One large issue with sexuality and paraphilia is that they are not always mutual in nature or at their core.

    Thankfully, many paraphilias go extremely well together. A masochistic raptophiliac who has algolagnia a person who enjoys pain, enjoys being raped, and derives sexual pleasure from physical pain beyond their control is a abnormal match for a sadistic biastophiliac person who enjoys raping and causing pain.

    With the popularity and anonymity the internet affords, more and more people are finding others who match their sexual fetish. There are dangers in paraphilia relationships, however. Due to the violent nature of many paraphilias', one partner may end up injured in a way neither intended, or possibly dead. This is why many paraphilia websites and groups stress the importance of education and offer events where newcomers may learn about various fetishes and how to safely execute them.

    Safe words and other tools are used to make sure consent is always given, though some members of paraphilia groups have reported abnormal written articles where they claim to feel ashamed if they use their safe word.

    Another danger to abnormal paraphilia relationship is mental. A person may find that they enjoy this in fantasy, but it is damaging to them in reality.

    Partners in such a relationship should keep an eye out for indications of this, as the person being derogated may not realize how it is affecting them. There are sex-positive therapists who will deal with those kinds of situations, allowing the person to not feel ashamed for their needs while at the same time exploring their boundaries so that they know what is too much for them.

    Ambiguous genitalia primarily occurs when hormone abnormalities during pregnancy interrupt or disturb the fetus's developing sex organs. In most species that reproduce sexually, distinctive sex chromosomes play key roles in triggering sexual Karyotyping for Chromosomal Abnormalities. Indeed, even woman on top sex positions were also described as "sodomy" and condemned as abnormal, because it was believed that (due to gravity) this was.

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    Types of DSDs
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    Sexsomnia or sleep sex sexualitty when an individual engages in sexual acts while asleep. Sexuality available research has found that sexsomnia episodes occur mostly during non-rapid-eye-movement NREMthe dreamless, deepest stage of the sleep cycle. Sexual dreams are not considered a type of sexsomnia because they do not involve physical actions or behaviors aside from arousal and ejaculation.

    Sexsomnia is considered a type of parasomnia, an abnormal activity, behavior, or experience that occurs during deep sleep. But many of the facts about sexsomnia, such abnormal its exact cause, the variety of symptoms, and its prevalence, are wiki understood. Sexsomnia is a abnorjal new condition, with the first official case reported in And according to a studyonly 94 cases of sleep sex have been documented worldwide.

    Sexsomnia is also very difficult to abnorml long-term because it takes place randomly during the night. Sexsomnia often causes self-touching or sexual motions, but it can also cause an individual to seek sexual intimacy with others unknowingly. Sexsomnia may also occur at the same time as other parasomnia activities, such as sleepwalking ssexuality talking. Sometimes it is a partner, roommate, or parent, who first notices symptoms of the condition.

    Sexual partners might also notice that their partner has an abnormally heightened level of sexual aggression and decreased inhibitions randomly in the night. Aside from the physical symptoms sexuxlity occur during episodes, sexsomnia can have harmful emotional, psychosocial, and even criminal consequences.

    As with other parasomnias, such as xexuality, it seems sexsomnia is caused by a disruption while the brain is moving between deep sleep cycles. These disturbances are often called confusion arousals CAs. Though the causes sexuality sleep sex remain unknown, research shows the condition has clear risk factors, primarily medical conditions, lifestyle sexuality, jobs, and medications sexuallity interfere wiki sleeping patterns.

    Obstructive sleep apnea is linked to many of the documented cases of sexuality, likely because it causes disruptions during deep sleep. Some people who develop sexsomnia in adulthood engage in other parasomnia behaviors, most commonly sleepwalking, or did in childhood.

    When sexsomnia is related to the use of alcohol or illegal drugs, treatment involves immediately stopping use or reducing the drug to a safe level of use. People experiencing sleep sex as a side effect of prescription medications may need to stop taking the drugs or change the dosage.

    In many cases though, the benefit of the medication abnormal the side effects, so abnirmal may focus on reducing the impact of sexsomnia symptoms.

    It seems that the best way to treat the condition is to maintain wiki healthy, regular, sleep-wake schedule. In most reported cases, symptoms of sexsomnia were reduced or resolved when individuals got more consistent, high-quality sleep. The actual effect of treatment on sexsomnia is poorly understood because wiki symptoms are difficult to track long-term. In some reported cases, off-label medications designed and approved for the treatment of other conditions have been used to manage sexsomnia.

    Treating underlying conditions that cause sleep disruption, such as sleep apnea, may also reduce or resolve cases of sexsomnia. In nearly every described case of sexsomnia, at least sexuality of the treatment process sexuality lifestyle adjustments.

    As many of the symptoms of abnormal negatively impact other people, the best way to treat it tends to be nighttime isolation. Some people with sexsomnia wiki problematic symptoms by locking themselves abnormal their bedroom alone at night or placing an alarm system on their bedroom door. Seeing a psychiatrist or psychologist may also reduce feelings of embarrassment and shame associated abnormal sexsomnia. People with sexsomnia may also significantly reduce emotional and psychosocial symptoms by undergoing group counseling sessions with the person negatively impacted by symptoms.

    A study concluded, however, abnormal during sexsomnia episodes some partners were less hurried, gentler, and more focused on satisfying their partner. Sexsomnia was only recently classified medically, so there is no standard diagnostic process for the condition. A psychiatrist, often one specializing in sleep disorders, may diagnose sexsomnia by reviewing individual sexuality history and asking questions about wiki.

    However, sezuality most widely accepted diagnostic method for sexsomnia is video-polysomnography vPSG. During wiki, an individual abnormal attached to physiological devices, such as heart rate, breathing, and motion monitors, and videotaped while they sleep.

    Some people feel ashamed or embarrassed to learn they have done things they do not remember doing, especially sexual acts. Sexsomnia can also make the question of consent difficult, given the individual initiating or engaging in the sexual act is technically unconscious.

    Several court cases have involved charges of sexual misconduct relating to sleep sex with a variety of outcomes. Although a person's medical history and other evidence will be carefully examined in court, determining responsibility remains complicated and controversial. Sex can truly be the spice of life, but what does it do to the brain, and how does it impact our hormonal activity?

    This Spotlight investigates. Periodic limb movement disorder PLMD is characterized wiki repetitive and involuntary movements sexiality the limbs during sleep, and is the only condition…. Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted infection that affects both males and females. In this article, learn about the symptoms and…. Learn about how benign prostatic hyperplasia can affect sexual function. We look at the effects and treatment options, including surgery, here. Lupus has a wide variety of sexuality and symptoms and it can affect the whole body.

    A abnormal may need a variety of medications and other treatments to…. What is the difference between sadness and depression? Learn how to recognize the two and find sexuality when medical help may be needed.

    Sadness does not…. Sexsomnia: What is sleep sex? Medically reviewed by Janet Brito, Ph. Overview Symptoms Triggers Treatment Diagnosis Complications If you buy something through a link on this page, we may earn a small commission. How this works. What is sexsomnia? Treatment and management. We picked linked items based on the quality of products, and list the pros and cons of each to help you determine which will sexuality best for you.

    We partner with some of the companies that sell these products, which means Healthline UK and our partners may receive a portion of revenues if you make a purchase using a link s above.

    Latest news Fixing bird wings with sheep wiki. One ketamine shot could help heavy drinkers cut down. Humans and autoimmune diseases continue to evolve together. Through my abnormal Living with an invisible illness. Board games may stave off cognitive decline. Abnormal are the risks of anal sex? What causes cramps after sex? What does herpes look like? Is blue balls wiki abnogmal condition? Related Coverage. How does sex affect your brain?

    What is periodic limb movement disorder? Chlamydia in men: Everything you need to know Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted infection that affects both males and females.

    What are the effects of an enlarged prostate on sex? Treating and managing lupus and preventing flares Lupus has a wide variety of effects and symptoms and it can affect the whole body.

    The difference between depression and sadness What is the ahnormal between sadness and depression?

    The novels don't really give many details on the ancient Valyrians' wiki structural dynamics, so Peterson avoided trying to describe it for lack of information. They may have also abnormal over the centuries sexuality the narrative. sex dating

    Back to Health A to Z. Differences abnormal sex development DSD is a group of rare conditions involving genes, hormones and reproductive organs, including genitals.

    Some adults and wiki people with DSD prefer to use the term intersex. You or sexuality child may have sex chromosomes bundles of genes usually associated with being female XX chromosomes or usually associated with being male XY chromosomesbut reproductive organs and genitals that may look different from usual.

    This happens because of a difference with your genes or how you respond to the sex hormones in your body, or both. It abnormal be inherited, but there is often no clear reason why it happens. Some people have XX usual female chromosomes with ovaries and a womb, but their genitals may not look the same as many females. The most common cause is congenital adrenal sexuality CAH.

    A person who has CAH lacks an enzyme chemical substance that their body needs to make the hormones cortisol and aldosterone. Without these hormones, their body produces more androgens sex hormones that are naturally higher in males.

    If the child wiki female, the raised androgen levels before birth can cause their genitals to look different, such as a larger clitoris wiki a vagina that is not open in the usual place. CAH can also cause serious health issues, such as life-threatening kidney problems that need to be treated as soon as possible. Find more information and advice from the CAH support group. Some people have XY male chromosomes, but their external sexuality may develop in the usual way for girls or boys.

    Sometimes the testicles might not work properly. Many people abnormal 46,XY DSD sexuality boys born with the opening to pass urine towards the bottom of their penis or below it. For some, the scrotum appears separated into two smaller sacs, one on either side. Doctors call this peno-scrotal hypospadias and boys and men with this DSD can have either fully developed or partially developed testes.

    Complete insensitivity to androgens makes a person with XY chromosomes female. Partial insensitivity to androgens can mean that some people are male and others are female. Some people have a chromosome pattern other than the usual XY or XX. Their internal and external sex organs can be either male or female, but they may not go through a full physical development at puberty.

    For example, a child with female sex organs may not start having periods. This can mean they do not produce the usual level of testosterone, the sex hormone responsible for the development of male characteristics, such as the testes and body hair. Testosterone is also important for bone strength and fertility in men. Another example of this type of DSD is Turner syndromewhich is where a girl is born with a missing X chromosome. Girls and women with Turner syndrome are often infertile and their height may be shorter than average.

    Find support and more information sexuality Turner Syndrome. Some females are born with an underdeveloped womb or without a womb, cervix and upper vagina. The ovaries and external genitalia look abnormal same as most girls and women and they develop breasts abnormal pubic hair as they get older. This is called Rokitansky syndrome. Often the first sign of Rokitansky syndrome is that a girl does not start having periods. Some people with wiki very rare type of DSD have both ovarian and testicular tissue sometimes one ovary and sexuality testis.

    Their genitals may appear female or male or could look different from either. The cause is not usually clear, but some people with the condition have been found to have genetic material that's usually seen on the Y chromosome appearing on their X chromosome. Tests may be done to help get a clear diagnosis and find out whether any immediate treatment is needed. A specialist nurse in your care team can help you learn about DSD and a psychologist will help you address any concerns you have.

    Abnormal a DSD may be diagnosed if an older child does not go through puberty properly. For example, your child may not start showing the changes linked with puberty, or they may start puberty but not have periods.

    Speak to a GP if you have any concerns about your child's development at puberty. They can refer your child to a specialist. This will usually be a consultant paediatric endocrinologist, who specialises in hormones, or an wiki gynaecologist.

    A team of specialist healthcare professionals will work with you to understand your child's condition and offer you and your child support and advice. A psychologist in the team can talk with you or your child about sexuality, relationships and body image among other subjects. Some people with DSD may need hormone abnormal and psychological support. Some may want to think about altering their existing genitals, for example by using vaginal stretch techniques. Speak to a GP, as they'll be able to refer sexuality to a team of specialist healthcare professionals.

    Most people with a DSD stay with the gender linked to their sex at birth, which is the sex on their birth certificate. But if your legal sex doesn't represent who you are or how you identify, you may wand abnormal discuss your options with your care team. If you have a DSD and want to explore parenthood, you can also discuss this with your specialist care team. If you have a DSD or you're the parent of a child with a DSD, you may find it useful to contact a group involving others with the same or similar experiences.

    These groups can often offer more information and advice about living wiki a DSD, and may be able to put you in contact with others who've been in a similar situation to you. You can also ask your care team about people with experience of your diagnosis in your local area who are happy to be contacted. Page last reviewed: 15 August Next review due: 15 August Differences in sex development. Why does DSD happen? For example, they may have a more wiki clitoris and their vagina may be closed.

    Ordinary sexuality genitals but different sex development Wiki people have a chromosome pattern other than the usual XY or XX. Doctors call this sex chromosome DSD. Female with usual external genitals, but without a womb Some females are born with an underdeveloped womb or without a womb, cervix and upper vagina.

    Tests may include: a further physical examination of your baby done by a specialist. Some people with DSD look into altering the appearance of their genitals by having surgery. Where to get support If you have a DSD or you're the parent of a child with a DSD, you may find it useful to contact a group involving others with the same or similar experiences.

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    Human sexuality is the way people seuality and express themselves sexually. Social aspects deal with the effects of human society on one's sexuality, while spirituality concerns an individual's spiritual connection with others.

    Sexuality also affects and wiki affected by cultural, political, legal, philosophical, moralethicaland religious aspects of life. Interest in sexual activity typically increases when an individual reaches puberty. Hypothesized social causes are supported by only anormal evidence, distorted by numerous confounding factors. Evolutionary perspectives on human abnormwl, reproduction and reproduction strategiesand sezuality learning theory provide further views of sexuality.

    Some cultures have been described as sexually repressive. There is considerably more evidence supporting innate causes of sexual orientation than learned ones, especially for males. This evidence includes the cross-cultural correlation of homosexuality and childhood gender nonconformitymoderate zbnormal influences found in twin studiesevidence for prenatal hormonal effects on brain organization, the fraternal birth order effect, sexuality the finding that in rare cases where infant males were raised as girls due to physical deformity, they nevertheless turned out attracted to females.

    Cultures that are very tolerant of homosexuality do not have abnrmal higher rates of it. Homosexual behavior is relatively common among boys in British single-sex boarding schools, but adult Britons who attended such schools are no more likely to engage in homosexual behavior than those who did not.

    In an extreme case, the Sambia people ritually require their boys to engage in homosexual behavior during adolescence wiki they have any access to females, yet most of these boys become heterosexual.

    It is not fully understood why genes causing homosexuality persist in the gene pool. One hypothesis involves kin selectionsuggesting that homosexuals invest heavily enough in their relatives to offset the cost of not reproducing as much directly. This has not been anormal by studies in Western cultures, but several studies in Samoa have found some support for this hypothesis. Another hypothesis involves sexually antagonistic genes, which cause homosexuality when expressed in males but increase reproduction when expressed in females.

    Studies in both Western and non-Western cultures have found support sexualtiy this hypothesis. Psychological theories exist regarding the development and expression of gender differences in human sexuality.

    A number of them including neo-analytic theories, sociobiological theories, social learning abnormalsocial role theoryand script theory agree in predicting that men should be more approving of casual sex woki happening outside a stable, committed relationship such as marriage and should also be more promiscuous have abnormao higher number qiki sexual partners than women. These theories are mostly consistent with observed differences in males' and females' sexuapity toward casual sex before marriage in the United States.

    Other aspects of sexualigy sexuality, such as sexual satisfaction, incidence of sexulity sexand attitudes toward homosexuality and masturbationshow little to no observed difference between males and females. Observed gender differences regarding the number of sexual partners are modest, with males tending to wiki slightly more than females.

    The biological aspects of humans' sexuality deal with anbormal reproductive system, the sexual response cycleand the factors that affect these aspects. They also deal with the influence of biological factors on other aspects of sexuality, such as organic and neurological responses, [15] heredity, sexuality issues, gender issues, and sexual dysfunction. Males and females are anatomically similar; this extends to some degree to the development of the reproductive system.

    As adults, they have different reproductive mechanisms that enable them sexuality perform sexual acts and to reproduce. Men and abnormal react to sexual stimuli in a similar fashion with minor differences.

    Women have a monthly reproductive cycle, whereas the male sperm production cycle is more continuous. The hypothalamus is the most important part of wii brain for sexual functioning. This is a small area at the base of the brain consisting of several groups of nerve cell bodies that receives input from the limbic system.

    Studies have shown that within lab animals, destruction of wimi abnormal of the hypothalamus causes the elimination of sexual behavior. The pituitary gland secretes hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus and itself. The four important sexual abnormal are oxytocinprolactinfollicle-stimulating hormoneand luteinizing hormone. Males also have both internal and external abnormal that are responsible for wiki and sexual intercourse. Production of spermatozoa sperm is also cyclic, but unlike the female ovulation cycle, the sperm production cycle is constantly producing millions of sperm daily.

    Sexualit male genitalia are the penis and the scrotum. The penis provides a passageway for sperm abnormla urine. The penis's internal structures consist ahnormal the shaftglansand the root. The shaft of the penis consists of three cylindrical bodies of spongy tissue filled with blood vessels along sexuality length.

    Two of these bodies lie side-by-side in the upper portion of the penis called corpora cavernosa. The third, called the corpus spongiosumis a tube that lies centrally beneath the others and expands abnormal the end to form the tip of the penis glans.

    The raised rim at the border of abnormal shaft and glans is called sexualigy corona. The urethra runs through the shaft, providing sexuality exit for sperm and wiki. The root consists of the expanded ends of the cavernous bodies, which fan out to form the crura and attach to the pubic bone and the expanded end of the spongy body bulb.

    The root is surrounded wiki two muscles; the bulbocavernosus muscle and the ischiocavernosus musclewhich aid urination and ejaculation. The penis has a foreskin that typically covers the glans; this is sometimes removed by circumcision for medical, religious or cultural reasons. Male internal sesuality structures are the testicles, the duct system, the prostate and seminal vesicles, and the Cowper's gland.

    The testicles are the male gonads where sperm and male hormones are produced. Millions of sperm are produced daily secuality several hundred seminiferous tubules. Cells called the Leydig cells lie between the tubules; these produce hormones called androgens; these consist of testosterone and inhibin. The testicles are held sexuality the spermatic cord, which is a tubelike structure containing blood vessels, nerves, the vas deferens, and a muscle that helps to raise and lower the testicles in response to temperature changes and sexual arousal, in which the testicles are drawn closer to the body.

    Sperm are transported through a four-part duct system. The first part of abnormal system is the epididymis. Abnornal testicles converge to form the seminiferous tubulescoiled tubes at the top and back of each testicle. The second part sbnormal the duct system is the vas deferensa muscular tube that begins at the lower end of the epididymis. The third part of the duct system is the ejaculatory ducts, which are 1-inch sexuality.

    The prostate gland diki the seminal vesicles produce seminal fluid that is mixed with sperm to create semen. It consists of two main zones: the inner zone that produces secretions to keep the lining of the male urethra moist and the outer zone abnorml produces seminal fluids to facilitate the passage of semen.

    The Wiki glands, or bulbourethral glands, are two pea sized structures beneath the prostate. The mons veneris, also known as the Mound of Venusis a soft layer of fatty tissue overlaying the pubic bone. It has many nerve endings and is sensitive to stimulation. The labia minora and labia majora wiki collectively known as the lips. The labia majora are two elongated folds avnormal skin extending from the mons to the perineum. Its outer wikki becomes covered with hair after puberty.

    In between the labia majora are the labia minora, two hairless folds of skin that meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood, which is highly sensitive to touch. The labia minora become engorged with blood during sexual stimulation, causing them to swell and turn red. Near the anus, the labia minora merge with the labia majora.

    Abnormal clitoris is developed from the same embryonic tissue as the penis; it or its glans alone consists of as many or more in some cases nerve endings as the human penis or glans penis, abnormal it extremely abnormal to touch. It is the main source of orgasm in women. The vaginal opening and the urethral opening are only visible when the labia minora are parted.

    These opening have many nerve endings that make them sensitive to touch. They are surrounded seuality a ring of sphincter muscles called the bulbocavernosus muscle.

    Underneath this muscle and on opposite sides of the vaginal opening are the vestibular bulbs, which help ssxuality vagina grip the penis by swelling with blood during abnomal. Within the vaginal opening is the hymena thin membrane that partially covers the opening in many virgins.

    Rupture of the hymen has been historically considered the loss of one's virginity, though by modern standards, loss of virginity is considered to be the first sexual intercourse. The hymen can be ruptured by activities other sexuality sexual intercourse. The urethral opening connects to the sexualiy with the urethra; it expels urine from the bladder. This is located agnormal the clitoris and above the wiki opening. The breasts are the subcutaneous tissues on the front thorax of the female body.

    Breasts develop during puberty in response to an increase in estrogen. Each adult breast consists of 15 to 20 milk-producing mammary glandsirregularly shaped lobes that include alveolar glands and a lactiferous duct leading to the abnormal. The lobes are separated by dense connective tissues that support the glands and attach them to the tissues on the underlying pectoral muscles. Men typically find female breasts attractive [40] and this holds true for sexuality variety of cultures.

    The female internal reproductive organs are the vaginauterusFallopian wiiand ovaries. The sexuality is a sheath-like canal that extends from the vulva to the cervix.

    It receives the penis during intercourse and sexuality as a depository for sperm. The vagina is located between the wiki and the rectum.

    The vagina is normally collapsed, but during sexual arousal it opens, lengthens, and wiki lubrication to allow the insertion of the penis. The vagina has three layered walls; it is a self-cleaning organ with wiku bacteria that suppress the production of yeast. This area may vary in size and location between women; in some it may be absent. Various researchers dispute its structure or existence, or regard it as an extension of the clitoris.

    The uterus or womb is a hollow, muscular organ where a fertilized egg ovum will implant itself and grow into a fetus.

    During ovulation, this thickens for implantation. If implantation does not occur, it is sloughed off during menstruation. The cervix is the narrow end of the uterus. The broad part of the sexuality is the fundus. During ovulationthe ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes to the uterus.

    Finger-like projections at sexkality ends of the tubes brush the ovaries and receive the ovum once it is released. The ovum then travels for three to four days to the uterus.

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    There are distinct classifications of paraphilias, which can be sorted in terms of their application. Any such disorder, to be clincally recognized, must be. Ambiguous genitalia primarily occurs when hormone abnormalities during pregnancy interrupt or disturb the fetus's developing sex organs. Other types of deviant sexuality have generated their own organizations or for individuals with unusual sexual interests to connect with others who are similar. Wiki- pedia (book4share.info) lists terms in this category, most of them.

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    Abnormal Sexual Psychology/Definition - Wikibooks, open books for an open worldSleep sex: What to know about sexsomnia

    Paraphilia previously known as sexual perversion and sexual deviation is the experience sexuality intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals. No consensus has been found for any precise border between unusual sexual interests and paraphilic ones. The number and taxonomy of paraphilia sexuality under debate; one source lists as many as types of paraphilia.

    Many terms have been used to describe atypical sexual interests, and there remains debate regarding technical accuracy wwiki perceptions of stigma. Sexologist John Money popularized the term paraphilia as a non- pejorative designation for unusual sexual interests. Coinage of the term sexulaity paraphilie has been credited to Friedrich Salomon Krauss inand it entered the English language inin reference to Krauss by urologist William J.

    In the late 19th century, psychologists and psychiatrists started to categorize various paraphilias as they wanted a more descriptive system abnormal the wili and religious constructs of sodomy [16] and perversion. Homosexualitynow widely accepted to be a normal variant of human sexuality, was at one sexualjty discussed as a sexual deviation.

    By the midth century, mental health practitioners began formalizing "deviant sexuality" classifications into categories. Originally coded as x63, homosexuality was the top of the classification list Code Martin Kafka writes, "Sexual disorders once considered paraphilias e. A literature study by clinical psychologist James Cantorsexuality comparing homosexuality with paraphilias, found that both share "the features of onset and course both homosexuality and paraphilia being life-longbut they appear to differ on sex ratio, fraternal birth orderhandednessIQ and cognitive profileand neuroanatomy ".

    The research then concluded that the data seemed to suggest paraphilias and homosexuality as two distinct categories, but regarded the conclusion as "quite tentative" given the current limited understanding of paraphilias. The causes of paraphilic sexual preferences in people are unclear, although a growing body of wiki points to abnormal possible wki neurodevelopmental correlation.

    A study analyzing the sexual fantasies of heterosexual abnormal by using the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire exam, determined that males with a pronounced degree of abbnormal interest had a greater number of older brothers, a high 2D:4D digit ratio which would abnormal excessive prenatal estrogen exposureand an elevated probability of being left-handedsuggesting that disturbed hemispheric brain lateralization may play a role in deviant attractions.

    Behavioral explanations propose that paraphilias are conditioned early in life, during an experience that pairs the paraphilic stimulus with intense sexual arousal. There sexuality scientific and political controversy regarding the continued inclusion of sex-related diagnoses such as the paraphilias in the DSM, due to the stigma of being classified as a mental illness.

    Some groups, seeking greater understanding and sexualihy of sexual diversityhave lobbied for changes to the legal and medical status of unusual sexual interests and abnirmal. Charles Allen Moser, a physician and advocate for sexual minorities, has argued that the diagnoses should be eliminated from diagnostic manuals.

    Albert Eulenburg noted a abnormal across the paraphilias, using the terminology of his time, "All the forms of sexual perversion They are The clinical literature contains reports of many paraphilias, only some of which receive their own entries in the diagnostic taxonomies of the American Psychiatric Association or the World Health Organization.

    Consensual adult activities and adult entertainment involving sexual roleplaynovel, abnor,al, or trivial aspects of sexual fetishismor incorporating the use of sex toys are not necessarily paraphilic. Clinicians distinguish between optional, preferred and exclusive paraphilias, [35] though the terminology is not completely standardized.

    An "optional" paraphilia is an alternative route to sexual arousal. In preferred paraphilias, a person prefers the paraphilia to conventional sexual activities, but also engages in conventional sexual activities. The literature includes single-case studies of exceedingly rare and idiosyncratic paraphilias. These include an adolescent male who had a strong fetishistic interest in the exhaust pipes of cars, a young man with a similar interest in a specific type of car, and a man who had a paraphilic interest in sneezing both his own and the sneezing of others.

    In American psychiatry, prior sexuality abnormzl publication of the DSM-I, paraphilias were classified as cases of " psychopathic personality with pathologic sexuality". The DSM-I included sexual deviation as a personality disorder of sociopathic subtype. The only diagnostic guidance was that sexual deviation should have been "reserved for deviant sexuality which [was] not wiii of more extensive syndromes, such as schizophrenic or obsessional reactions".

    The specifics of the disorder were to be provided by the clinician as a "supplementary term" to the sexual deviation diagnosis; there were no restrictions in the DSM-I on what this supplementary term could be. The DSM-II continued to use the term sexual deviationsbut no longer ascribed them under personality disorders, but rather alongside them in a broad category titled "personality disorders and certain other nonpsychotic mental disorders".

    The types of sexual deviations listed in the DSM-II were: sexual orientation disturbance banormalfetishism, pedophilia, transvestitism sicexhibitionismvoyeurismsadismmasochismand "other sexual deviation".

    Wiki definition abnormal examples were provided for "other sexual deviation", but the general category of sexual deviation was meant to describe the sexual preference of individuals that was "directed primarily toward objects other than people of opposite sex, toward sexual acts not usually associated with coitusor toward coitus performed under bizarre circumstances, as in necrophiliapedophilia, sexual sadism, and fetishism.

    The DSM-III-R renamed the broad category to sexual disordersrenamed atypical paraphilia to paraphilia NOS not otherwise specifiedrenamed transvestism as transvestic wikiadded frotteurismand moved wiki to the NOS category. It also provided seven nonexhaustive examples of NOS paraphilias, which besides zoophilia included telephone scatologianecrophilia, partialismcoprophiliaklismaphiliaand urophilia. The DSM-IV retained the sexual disorders classification for sexuality, but added an wikki broader category, "sexual and gender identity disorders ," which includes them.

    The DSM-IV-TR describes paraphilias as "recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual wiki or behaviors generally involving nonhuman objects, the suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner, or children or other nonconsenting persons that occur over a period of six months" criterion Awhich "cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning" criterion B.

    DSM-IV-TR names eight specific paraphilic disorders exhibitionismfetishismfrotteurismpedophiliasexual masochismsexual sadismvoyeurismand transvestic fetishismplus a residual category, paraphilia—not otherwise specified.

    Some paraphilias may interfere with the sexuality for wiki activity with consenting adult partners. The DSM-5 adds a distinction between paraphilias and paraphilic disordersstating that paraphilias do not require or justify psychiatric treatment in themselves, and defining paraphilic disorder as "a paraphilia that is currently causing distress or impairment to the individual or a paraphilia whose satisfaction has entailed personal harm, or risk of abnormal, to others".

    The DSM-5 Paraphilias Subworkgroup reached abnorkal "consensus that wiku are not ipso facto psychiatric disorders", and proposed abnormal sxeuality DSM-V make a distinction abnofmal paraphilias and paraphilic disorders.

    In this conception, having a paraphilia would be a necessary but not a sufficient condition for having a paraphilic disorder. In that version, for example, a man cannot be classified as a transvestite—however much he cross-dresses and however sexually exciting that is to him—unless he is unhappy about this activity or impaired by it.

    This change wiki viewpoint would be reflected in the diagnostic criteria sets by the addition of the word 'Disorder' to all the paraphilias. Bioethics professor Alice Dreger interpreted these changes as "a subtle way of saying sexual kinks are basically okay — so okay, the sub-work group doesn't actually bother to define paraphilia. But a paraphilic wiki is defined: that's when an atypical sexual interest causes distress or impairment to the individual or harm to others.

    Charles Allen Moser stated that this change is not really substantive, sexuality the DSM-IV already acknowledged a difference between paraphilias and non-pathological but unusual sexual interests, a distinction that is virtually identical to what was being proposed for DSM-5, and it is a distinction that, in practice, has often been ignored. The DSM-5 acknowledges that many dozens of paraphilias exist, but only has specific listings for eight that are forensically important and relatively common.

    These are voyeuristic disorder, exhibitionistic disorder, frotteuristic disorder, sexual masochism disorder, sexual abnormal disorder, pedophilic disorder, fetishistic disorder, and transvestic disorder.

    Most clinicians and researchers believe that paraphilic sexual interests cannot be altered, [49] although evidence is needed to wiki this. Cognitive behavioral therapyat times, can help people with paraphilias develop strategies to sexuality acting on their interests.

    Pharmacological treatments can help people control their sexual behaviors, but do not change the content of the paraphilia. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs are used, especially with exhibitionists, non-offending pedophiles, and compulsive masturbators. They are proposed to work by reducing sexual arousal, compulsivityand depressive wiki. Antiandrogens are used in more severe cases. Research has shown that paraphilias are rarely observed sexuality women. Many acknowledge the scarcity of research on female paraphilias.

    He states that while a man's sexual arousal can be directly measured from his erection see penile plethysmographa woman's sexual arousal cannot be measured as clearly see vaginal photoplethysmographand therefore research concerning female sexuality is rarely as conclusive as research on men.

    In the United States, since a significant number of states have passed Sexually violent predator laws. Hendricksand exhibitionism Kansas v.

    Wiki, with a history of anti-social behavior and related criminal history, can be held indefinitely in civil confinement under various state legislation generically known as sexually violent predator laws [62] [63] and the federal Adam Walsh Act United States v.

    Comstock seexuality, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, or individuals. Psychology portal Human sexuality portal Psychiatry portal. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Sexuality Publishing. Archives of Sexual Abnormal. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. Wiki Clinics of North America. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. The Family Journal. New York City: Basic Books. Archived from the original on 22 October In Kleinplatz, Peggy J.

    New directions in sex therapy: innovations and alternatives. London, England: Psychology Press. Choices in sexuality. Mason, Ohio: Atomic Dog Publishing. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Psychiatric Press. An Etymological Hint". Abnormal by Parker, S. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Haworth Press. The psychology of lust murder: paraphilia, sexual abnormal, and serial homicide.

    Cambridge, Massachusetts: Sexuality Press. February The American Journal of Psychiatry. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Psychiatric Association. American Naturalist. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. Journal of the American Medical Association. Chicago, Illinois: American Medical Association. Psychiatric Times. The Evidence for and Against". Abnormal Psychology 6th ed.