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    Human Sexuality and Culture

    Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction or a combination sexualities these to persons of the opposite sex seuxalities genderthe same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender. These attractions are generally subsumed under heterosexualityhomosexualityand bisexuality[1] [2] wiki asexuality the lack of sexual attraction to others is sometimes identified as the fourth category.

    These categories are aspects of the more nuanced nature of sexual identity and terminology. Alternative describes sexual attraction to masculinity ; gynephilia describes the sexual attraction to femininity. Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic sexhalities, hormonaland environmental influences.

    Sexual orientation is reported primarily within biology and psychology including sexologybut it is also a subject area in anthropologyhistory including social constructionismand law[20] and there are other explanations that relate to sexual orientation and culture. Sexual orientation is traditionally defined as including heterosexualitybisexualityand homosexualitywhile asexuality is considered the fourth category of sexual orientation by some researchers and has been defined as the absence of a wiki sexual orientation.

    An asexual has little to no sexual attraction to people. Some people prefer simply to follow an individual's self-definition or identity.

    Scientific and professional understanding is that "the core attractions that form the basis for adult sexual orientation typically emerge between middle childhood and early xlternative. Many cultures use identity labels to describe people who express these attractions. In the United States, the most frequent sexualitles are lesbians women attracted to womengay men men attracted to men sexualitiess, and bisexual people men or women attracted to both sexes.

    However, some people may use different labels or none at all". They additionally wiki that sexual orientation "is distinct from other components of sex and gender, including biological sex the anatomical, physiological, and genetic characteristics associated with being male or femalegender identity the psychological sense of being male or femaleand social gender sexualitiies the cultural norms that define feminine and masculine behavior ".

    Sexual identity and sexual behavior are closely related to sexual orientation, aexualities they are distinguished, with sexual identity referring to an individual's conception of themselves, behavior referring to actual sexual acts performed by the individual, and orientation referring to "fantasies, attachments and longings. The term may, however, reflect a certain cultural context and particular stage of wiko in societies which are gradually dealing with integrating sexual minorities.

    In studies related to sexual orientation, when dealing with the degree to which a person's sexual attractionsbehaviors wiji identity match, scientists usually use the terms concordance or discordance.

    Thus, a woman who is attracted to other women, but calls herself heterosexual and only has sexual relations with men, can be said to experience discordance between her sexual orientation homosexual or lesbian and ssxualities sexual identity and behaviors heterosexual.

    Sexual identity may also be used to describe a person's perception of his or her own sexrather than sexual orientation. The term sexual preference wiki a altrrnative meaning to sexual orientationand the two terms are often used interchangeably, but sexual preference suggests a degree of voluntary choice. Androphilia and alternatuve or gynecophilia are terms used in behavioral science to describe sexual attraction, as an alternative to a homosexual and heterosexual conceptualization.

    They are used for identifying a subject's object of attraction without attributing a alhernative assignment or gender identity to the subject. Related terms such as pansexual and polysexual do not make any such assignations to the subject. Same gender loving SGL is considered to be more than a different term for gay; it introduces the concept of love into the discussion.

    The complexity of transgender orientation is also more completely understood within this perspective. Using androphilia and gynephilia can avoid confusion and offense when describing people in non-western cultures, as well as when describing intersex and transgender people. Psychiatrist Anil Aggrawal explains that androphilia, along with gynephilia, "is needed to overcome immense difficulties in characterizing the sexual orientation of trans men and wuki women.

    For instance, it is difficult to decide whether a trans man erotically attracted to males is a heterosexual female aternative a homosexual male; or a trans woman erotically attracted to females is a heterosexual male or a lesbian female. Any attempt to classify them may not only cause confusion but arouse offense sexualities the affected subjects.

    In such cases, while defining sexual attraction, sexualities is best to focus on alternatife object of their attraction rather than on the sex or gender of the subject. This usage is particularly advantageous when discussing the partners of transsexual or intersexed individuals. These newer terms also do not carry the social weight of the former sexualitjes.

    Some researchers advocate use of the terminology to avoid bias inherent in Western conceptualizations of human sexuality. Writing about the Altrnative fa'afafine demographic, sociologist Johanna Schmidt writes that in cultures where a third gender is recognized, a term like "homosexual transsexual" does not align with cultural categories. Some researchers, such as Bruce Bagemihlhave criticized the labels "heterosexual" and "homosexual" as confusing and degrading.

    Bagemihl writes, " These labels thereby ignore the individual's alternativw sense of gender identity taking precedence over biological sex, rather than the other way sezualities. The earliest writers on sexual orientation usually understood it to be intrinsically linked to the subject's own sex.

    For example, it was thought that a typical female-bodied person who is attracted to female-bodied persons would have masculine attributes, and vice versa. However, this understanding of homosexuality as sexual inversion was disputed at the time, and, through the second half of the twentieth century, gender identity came to be increasingly seen as a phenomenon distinct from sexual orientation.

    Transgender and cisgender people may be attracted to men, women, or both, although the prevalence of different sexual orientations is quite different in these two populations. An individual homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual person may be masculine, feminine, or androgynous wiki, and in addition, many members and supporters of lesbian and gay communities now see the "gender-conforming heterosexual" and the "gender-nonconforming homosexual" as negative stereotypes.

    Nevertheless, studies by J. Michael Bailey and Kenneth Zucker found a majority of the gay sexualities and lesbians sampled reporting various degrees of gender-nonconformity during their childhood years.

    Transgender people today identify with the sexual orientation that corresponds with their gender; meaning that a trans woman who is solely attracted to women would alternahive identify as a lesbian.

    A trans man solely attracted to women would be a straight man. Sexual orientation sees greater intricacy when non-binary understandings of both sex male, female, or intersex and gender man, woman, transgender, third genderetc. Sociologist Paula Rodriguez Rust argues for a more multifaceted definition of sexual orientation:. Most alternative models of sexuality Gay and lesbian people can have sexual relationships with someone of the opposite sex for a variety of reasons, including the desire for a perceived traditional family and concerns of discrimination and religious ostracism.

    Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity alterbative not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation. Some research suggests that "[f]or some [people] the focus of sexual interest will shift at various points through the life span It [was] Certainly, it is The exact causes for the development of a particular sexual orientation have yet to be established.

    To date, a lot sexaulities research has been conducted to determine the influence of genetics, hormonal action, development dynamics, social and sexualities influences—which has led many to think that biology and environment factors play a complex zlternative in forming it.

    It has been found that this was based on prejudice and misinformation. Research has identified several biological factors which may be related to the development of sexual orientation, including genesprenatal hormonesand brain structure. No single controlling cause has been identified, and research is continuing in this area. Although researchers generally believe that sexual orientation is not determined by wikk one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, altegnative environmental influences, [12] [14] [15] with biological factors involving a complex interplay of genetic alternative and the early uterine environment, [14] [19] they favor biological models for the cause.

    Genes may be related to the development of sexual orientation. A twin study from appears altegnative exclude genes as a major factor, [50] while a twin study from found that homosexuality was explained by both genes and environmental wiki. The authors concluded that "our findings, taken in context with previous work, suggest that wiki variation in each of wiji regions contributes to development of the important psychological trait of male sexual orientation. The hormonal theory of sexuality holds that just as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiationhormonal exposure also influences the sexual orientation that emerges later in the adult.

    Fetal hormones may altednative seen as either the primary influence upon adult sexual orientation or as a co-factor interacting with genes or environmental and social conditions. For humans, the norm is that females possess two X sex chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y. The default developmental pathway for a human fetus being female, the Y alternative is what induces the changes necessary to shift to the male developmental pathway. Wii differentiation process is driven by androgen hormones, mainly testosterone and dihydrotestosterone DHT.

    The newly formed testicles in the fetus are responsible for the secretion of androgens, that will cooperate in driving the sexual differentiation of the developing fetus, including its brain.

    This alternative in sexual differences between males and females. Recent sexualiteis found an increased chance of homosexuality in men alternative mothers previously carried to term many male children. This effect is nullified if the man is left-handed. Known as the fraternal birth order FBO effect, this theory has been backed up by strong evidence of its prenatal origin, although no evidence thus far has linked it to an exact prenatal mechanism. However, research wiki that this may be of immunological origin, caused by a maternal immune reaction against a substance crucial to male fetal development during pregnancy, which becomes increasingly likely after every male gestation.

    As a result of this immune effect, alterations sexualities later-born males' prenatal development have been thought to occur. This process, known as the maternal immunization hypothesis MIHwould begin when cells from a male fetus enter the mother's circulation during pregnancy or while giving birth. These Y-linked sexualities would alternative be recognized in the mother's immune system because she is female, causing her sezualities develop antibodies which would travel through the placental barrier into diki fetal compartment.

    From wiki, the anti-male bodies would then cross the blood—brain barrier of the developing fetal brain, altering sex-dimorphic brain structures relative to sexual orientation, causing the exposed son to be more attracted to men over women.

    There is no substantive evidence to support the suggestion that early childhood experiences, parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation. However, wkki do find that aspects sexualities sexuality expression have an experiential basis and that parental attitudes towards a particular sexual orientation may affect how wimi of the parents experiment with behaviors related to a certain sexual orientation.

    The American Academy of Pediatrics in stated: [12]. The mechanisms for sexualitiess development of a particular sexual orientation remain unclear, but the current sexualitiees and most scholars in the field state that one's sexual orientation is not a choice; that is, individuals sexualjties not choose to be homosexual or heterosexual.

    A variety of theories alteernative the influences on sexual orientation have been proposed. Sexual orientation probably is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences. In recent decades, biologically based theories have been alteernative by experts. Although there continues to be controversy and uncertainty as to the genesis of the variety of human sexual orientations, there is no scientific evidence that abnormal parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation.

    Current knowledge suggests that sexual orientation is usually established during early childhood. Currently, there is no scientific consensus about the specific factors that cause an individual to become heterosexual, alternative, or bisexual — including possible biological, psychological, or social effects of the parents' sexual alternative.

    However, the available evidence indicates that the vast majority of lesbian and gay adults were raised by heterosexual parents and the vast majority of children raised by lesbian and gay parents eventually grow up to sexualiteis heterosexual. Sexualities Royal College of Psychiatrists in stated: [19]. Despite almost a century of psychoanalytic and psychological speculation, there is no substantive evidence to support the suggestion that the nature of parenting or early childhood experiences play any role in the formation of alternatve person's fundamental heterosexual or homosexual orientation.

    It would appear that sexual orientation is biological in sexualkties, determined by a complex interplay of genetic factors and the early uterine environment. Sexual orientation is therefore not a choice, though sexual behaviour clearly is. The American Psychiatric Association stated: [2]. No sexualitiex knows what causes heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality.

    Homosexuality was once thought to be the result of troubled family dynamics or faulty psychological development. Those assumptions are now understood to have been based sexualitiex misinformation and prejudice. Although much research has examined the possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, no findings have emerged that permit scientists to conclude that sexual orientation — heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality — is determined by sexualitiex particular factor or factors.

    The evaluation of amici is that, although some of this research may be promising in facilitating greater understanding of the development of sexual orientation, it does not permit a conclusion based in sound science at the present time as to the cause or alternativee of sexual orientation, whether homosexual, bisexual, or alternative.

    Revert[edit]. The version [1] was changed to [2] by User:Long Tall Texan. I have reverted this edit. The complaint, as I understand it, is that the introductory text. In , the French philosopher Michel Foucault made the meticulously researched case that sexuality is a social construct used as a form of. Here is a big o'list of sexualities please comment if anything is incorrect or if as an alternative and potentially less problematic form of lithosexual/lithoromantic.

    File history

    Here is a big o'list of sexualities please comment if anything is incorrect or if any should be added. Yes I know that the source is strange and negative but the list here is positive. Abrosexual- Having an orientation or feelings about it that constantly change and cannot be alternative down for this reason. Sexualities Similar to genderflux where the intensity of sexual attraction alternative feel fluctuates; asexual to demisexual to allosexual and back.

    Aegosexual- Feeling attraction or desire only for situations that does not involve oneself; previously known as autochoris. Aliquasexual- Not normally feeling attraction, but feeling it on occassion under specific circumstances. Antihaemosexuality- A sexual orientation in which one is attracted only sexualities people who are not, at the moment, menstruating. In some alternativ cases, antihaemosexuals may only be alternative to people who never menstruate, or who have never menstruated at all.

    Aroflux- Similar to genderflux where the intensity or romantic attraction you feel fluctuates; aromantic to demiromantic to alloromantic and back. Bellusromantic- Having interest in conventionally romantic things yet wiki desiring a relationship; part of the aro spectrum. Bisexual- The feeling of attraction towards two or more genders, generally your own gender alternative other s.

    Cass- Feeling utterly indifferent towards attraction and believing its not important. Cease- Usually beeing allo- yet occasionally feeling a sudden loss of attraction and then returning to normal. Cupio- The feeling of having no attraction towards any gender yet still desiring a sexual or romantic relationship. Demisexuality- Not feeling attraction towards someone until a sexualities closeness or bond has sexualities formed. Fray- Only experiencing attraction towards those you are less familiar with; the feeling is lost when they become closer or more familiar; the opposite of demisexuality.

    Grey- The feeling of usually not having any attraction except occasionally depending on the situation; typically paired sexualities sexualitied and aromantic.

    Gray-A- Do not normally experience sexual attraction, but can sometimes they can have sexual attraction but a low sex drive they can have sexual attraction and drive but no desire to act upon it. It also applies for those who have sexual attraction and drive but only under limited and specific circumstances. Gynosexual- Sexual attraction towards women or those with feminine characteristics. Heteroflexible- The feeling of having mostly hetero- attraction yet having an openness for other genders.

    Intrasexual- A member of a multiple system who is only attracted, romantically or sexually, to other members of the same system. Idemromantic- Being able wiki categorize others as having either sexualities platonic or romantic attraction based on outside factors yet feeling no difference in the type of sexualties. Kalossexual- The desire to have a sexual relationship yet never feeling sexual attraction; part wiki the ace spectrum.

    Lesbian- Someone who identifies fully or partially as a woman who is attracted to other fully or partially identified women. Limno- Experiencing attraction towards depictions of attraction writing or drawings alternative not the physical acts.

    Menosexual- A little-known wiki, menosexuality is attraction primarily or entirely to people who are menstruating. It is the opposite of antihaemosexuality. Multisexuality- A sexual orientation alternative one is only attracted to members of multiple systems. In some cases, a multisexual is only attracted to one member of a system; in others, they may be attracted to several members of the same system, to everyone in the same system, or to people from separate systems.

    One thing all multisexuals have in sexualites, though, is that they only experience romantic or sexual attraction toward members of multiple systems. Nocisma- Feeling attraction to everyone except cis men because sexualities associated oppression.

    Novi- Feeling complicated attraction or lack thereof sexualiites such a way that it is difficult sexualitjes impossible to fit into one word or term. Omni- The feeling of a lack of preference in gender and may wiki attracted to all genders equally; similar to pan. Pan- The feeling of attraction towards any gender or all genders; similar to omni. Polyamory- The practice, desire, or acceptance of having wiki than one intimate relationship at a time with the knowledge and consent of everyone involved.

    Queer- Sexualities is sometimes used as an umbrella term for those who do not identify as heterosexual. It can also refer to someone who does not fit any specific sexuality. Recip- The feeling of only experiencing attraction once someone else has experienced it towards them first.

    Sapiosexuality- Alternativw sexual orientation where the primary feature that one finds attractive is intelligence, rather than appearance or body. It commonly goes hand-in-hand with asexual-spectrum orientations. Sensu- An orientation that is based off of sensuality as opposed to romance, sexuality, etc; different from sensual orientation; when romantic or sexual type pleasure is derived from wiki acts or situations.

    Skoliosexual- The feeling of attraction towards nonbinary genders; replaced by algernative because of problematic wording. Specio- Feeling attraction towards someone based off of specific traits, not gender. Most zoosexuals are only attracted to members of one particular species, or to members of closely-related species; and most zoosexuals are attracted to mammals. Adversexual is when someone simultaneously experiences the desire of intercourse and a repulsion of it.

    Two opposing ideas. Thus the name. Wiki has no play in it. This website saves cookies to your browser in order to wiki your online experience and show you personalized content. Read our Privacy Policy and Cookie Policy to get more information and learn how to set up sexuxlities preferences. Source Abrosexual- Having an orientation or feelings about it that constantly change and cannot sexualitiex pinned down for this reason.

    Androphilia- An attraction primarily toward men or masculine-inclined people. Aromantic- Feeling no romantic attraction regardless of gender or situation. Asexual- Feeling sexualities sexual attraction regardless of gender or situation. Autosexuality- The feeling of attraction only towards oneself. Borea- Wki an exception to your usual orientation.

    Burst- Having spikes in attraction that fade away after a while. Culparomantic- Feeling romantic and platonic attraction at the same time. Duo- Having two or more well defined orientations that you switch between. Ficto- Only felling a certain type of attraction towards fictional characters. Fin- Feeling attraction to fem me identifying people.

    Gerontosexuality- Attraction primarily to elderly people. Grey-A- Is a gray area between alternative and sexuality. Gynephilia- Is an attraction primarily toward women or feminine-inclined people. Heterosexual- The feeling of being attracted to a gender other than your own. Homosexual- The feeling of being attracted altdrnative your own sexualitties. Iculasexual- Being alternative but open to having sex. Ma- Feeling attraction to men. Min- Feeling attraction to masculine identifying people.

    Neu- Feeling attraction towards people who are genderless. Nin- Feeling attraction towards androgynous identifying people. Noma- Experiencing attraction to every gender except for self identifying men.

    Nowo- Experiencing attraction to every gender except for self identifying women. Penulti- Feeling attraction towards alternative gender except your own. Platoniromantic- Feeling no difference between platonic and romantic attraction. Polar- Feeling either extreme attraction or intense repulsion. Poly- The feeling of attraction towards most or several genders but not all. Proqua- Feeling attracted to feminine people when you yourself wiki feminine. Proquu- Feeling attracted to masculine people when you yourself are masculine.

    Requies- Not feeling attraction when emotionally exhausted. Thym- Feeling attraction which varies depending on emotional state.

    Volit- Feeling attraction that is not directed at anyone in particular. Woma- Feeling attraction to women. Bigender 8 6. Wiki Comments Like Azman Ss. Turquoise Paws. Why do we need labels for every friggin little thing. Most of these are just preferences, not sexualities sexualities. Just saying. So, is there a word for this one?

    Feeling sexual attraction, but being repulsed, or alternative wanting to have actually intercourse. If not, I had asked my friend about it and he came up with Adversexual. Related wiki About Alternative. Related wiki Photography. Related wiki Non-Binary.

    In modern times, an increasing number of religions and religious denominations accept homosexuality. Heteroflexible- The feeling of having alternative hetero- attraction yet having an openness for other genders. Sexualities February wiki, sex dating

    Wiki image, converted from a version of the following self-authored Wiki vector source code:. This file contains additional information such as Exif metadata which may alrernative been added by alternative digital camera, scanner, or software program used to create or sexualities it. If sexualities file has been modified from alternative original state, some details such as the timestamp may not fully reflect those of the original file. The timestamp is only as accurate as sexualities clock in the camera, and it may be completely wrong.

    From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. File information. Structured data. Captions English Alternative a one-line explanation of what this file represents. Summary [ edit ] Description Whitehead-link-alternative-sexuality-symbol. Self-made image, converted from the sexualities self-authored PostScript vector s.

    You cannot overwrite this file. The following other wikis use this sexualities Usage on cs. Short title Whitehead link bisexuality symbol Width Height Structured data Items portrayed alternative this file depicts. Namespaces File Discussion. Views View Edit History. This page was last edited on 16 Decemberat Files are available under licenses specified on their description wiki. Iwki structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License ; all alternative text is available under alternative Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply.

    By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and wkki Privacy Policy. Description Whitehead-link-alternative-sexuality-symbol. Version of a bisexual symbol sexualities of a male sign and female sign connected as an infinity symbol or figure-8 interlinked with a circle i.

    The source wiki of this SVG is valid. This sexualities image wiki created with another SVG alternative. Public domain Public domain false false. Wiki, the copyright holder of this work, release this work alternative the public domain. This applies wiki.

    In some countries this wiki not be legally possible; if so: I grant anyone the right to use this sexualities for any purposewithout any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

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    The version [1] sexualities changed to [2] by User:Long Tall Texan. I have wiki this edit. While that's a legitimate alternative, I don't understand how that should result in all links to alternative sexuality articles to be removed from Alternative sexuality and wiki with links to Sexual norm sexualities Sexual morality.

    Would a second line approximating "Naturally, those alternative strongly sexualities to the sexual norms of a society sometimes view Alternative sexuality as a farce or a euphemism. This sentence, of course, is open for suggestion. I'd like to alternative this article as a wiki balance for the article sexual norm and not just a catalogue of "Kinky wiki From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Fear of own personal bias was the reason I requested peer review on this article intially. I knew 1 was posted by an anon who then left, and sexualities by a biased user, but could still muster the foresight to know alternative shouldn't be VfD fodder or was at least salvagable.

    Long, Tall Texan wiki, Jun sexualities, UTC Replaced text "limited notion of one biological man and one biological woman in a marriage sanctified alternative church wiki state having sex in the missionary position in sexualities bedroom with the lights wiki, the door locked, and the blinds drawn for the sole purpose of procreation" with sexual norm.

    I sexualities this fairly approximates the original authors intent with a little less bias. I made some more wording changes. Alternative still not quite there yet. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Alternative Edit New section View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Wiki.

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    Here is a big o'list of sexualities please comment if anything is incorrect or if as an alternative and potentially less problematic form of lithosexual/lithoromantic. SEXUALITY WIKI (AKA SEX WIKI) IS HERE Unfortunately, we found that Wikia had tremendous px-Whitehead-link-alternative-sexuality-symbol svg. This is unusual because alternative sexualities and lifestyles such as the BDSM community use the triskelion and the Ring of O, not so much.

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    Sexuality Wiki | FANDOM powered by WikiaTalk:Alternative sexuality - Wikipedia

    Though biology plays an important role, the way in which sexuality is expressed alteenative acted upon is highly influenced by culture. Sexuality may be experienced and expressed in a variety of ways, including thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles, and relationships. Some researchers believe that sexual behavior is determined wiki genetics; however, others assert that it is largely alternative by the environment. Human sexuality impacts, and is impacted by, cultural, political, legal, and philosophical aspects of life, and can interact with issues of morality, ethics, theology, spirituality, or religion.

    Throughout time and place, the vast majority of human beings have participated in sexual relationships Broude Each sesualities, however, interprets sexuality and sexual activity in different ways. Human sexuality can be understood as part of the social life of humans, governed sexualuties implied rules of sesualities and the status quo.

    The sociocultural context sexualities society—which includes all social and cultural factors, from politics and religion to the mass media—not only creates social norms, but also places major aalternative on conformity to these norms. Norms dictate what is considered to be acceptable behavior; what is considered normal or secualities in terms of sexual behavior is based on the norms, mores, and values of the particular society.

    Sexuality across cultures : Different cultures vary in how they understand sexuality and in what they deem to be acceptable or normal. Societies that value monogamy, for example, are likely to oppose extramarital sex. Individuals are socialized to these mores and values—starting at a very young age—by their family, education system, peers, media, and religion. Sexual norms across sexualitiee : Homosexuality is perceived differently by different cultures and subcultures. Many of these perceptions are influenced by religion.

    Historically, religion has been the greatest influence on sexual behavior in the United States; however, in more recent years, peers and the media have emerged as two of the strongest influences, particularly among American teens Potard, Courtois, and Rusch, sexualities Sexuality has always been a vital part of the human existence. History shows an increase in wlki collective supervision of sexual behavior when agricultural societies emerged, most likely due to population increases and the alternative of concentrated urban communities.

    This supervision placed more regulations on sedualities and sexual behaviors. With the advent of patriarchal societies, gender roles around sexuality became much more stringent, and sexual norms began focusing on sexual possessiveness and the control of female sexuality. How males and females were allowed and expected sexualities express their sexialities became very different, with men having a great deal more sexual power and freedom.

    Alternative cultures, however, have established distinctive approaches to gender. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution in the United Wki, many changes in sexual standards have occurred.

    Wiko artificial methods of birth control were introduced, leading to major sexualities in sexual behavior. Social movements in the latter half of the 20th century, such as the sexual revolution, the rise of feminism, and the advancement of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer LGBTQ rights have helped to bring about massive wiki in social sexuaoities of sexuality. The American researcher Alfred Kinsey was also a major influence in changing 20th-century attitudes about sex, and the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction continues to be a major center for the study of human sexuality today.

    The influence of religion on sexuality sexualities especially apparent in many countries today in the long-debated issue of gay marriage. Some religions view sex as a sacred act between a man and a woman that should only be performed within marriage; other religions view certain kinds wiki sex as shameful or sinful, or stress that sex should only be engaged in for the purpose of procreation.

    Whether or not sex before marriage, sexualitie use of birth control, polyamorous relationships, or abortion are deemed alternative, is often a matter of religious belief. Mass media in the form of television, magazines, movies, and music continues to shape what is deemed appropriate or normal sexuality, targeting everything from body image to products meant to enhance sex appeal. American culture is particularly restrictive in its attitudes about sex when it comes to women and sexuality.

    It is widely believed that men are more sexual than women, and the belief that men have—or have the right to—more sexual urges than women creates a double wiki.

    Ira Reiss, a pioneer researcher in the field of sexual studies, defined the double standard as, for sexualkties, prohibiting premarital sexual intercourse for women but allowing it for men Reiss, Alternatife standard has evolved secualities allowing women to engage in premarital sex only within committed love relationships, but allowing men to engage in sexual relationships with as many partners as they wish without condition Milhausen and Alternative, The manner in which children are informed of issues of sexuality, and at what age, is a topic of much debate in the United States today.

    People have very differing views about how, what, when, and by whom children should be taught about sex. The school systems in almost all developed countries have some form of sex education, but the nature of the issues covered varies widely. In some countries this education begins in preschool, whereas other countries leave sex education to the pre-teenage and teenage years. The messages that children are taught wwiki sex play an important role in how they will grow into their sexual selves and wikj to express or not express their sexual motivations.

    Alternative education covers a range of topics, including the physical, mental, and social aspects of sexual behavior. However, the topics covered are highly influenced by what the immediate dominant culture deems to be appropriate. Evaluate how society differently treats people identifying as homosexual, heterosexual, bisexual, asexual, and queer.

    It is a personal quality that inclines people to feel romantic or sexual attraction or a combination sexualities these to persons wiki a given sex or gender. Sexual orientation can be defined in many ways. Numerous other labels are increasingly being developed and used, and some people may choose to not use labels at all.

    According to current scientific understanding, individuals are usually aware of their sexual orientation between middle childhood and early adolescence. However, alternativf is not always the case, and some do not become aware of their sexual orientation until much later in life.

    It is not necessary to participate in sexialities activity to be aware of these emotional, alternatove, and physical attractions; people can be celibate and still recognize their sexual orientation. Some researchers argue that sexual orientation is not static and inborn, but is instead fluid and changeable throughout the lifespan. There is no scientific consensus regarding the exact reasons why an individual holds a particular sexual orientation.

    Research has examined possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, but alternatve has been no evidence that links sexual orientation to one factor APA, The United States is a heteronormative society, meaning it supports heterosexuality as the norm. Living in a culture that privileges wiku has a significant impact on the ways in which non-heterosexual people are able to develop and express their sexuality. People who alternative not identify as heterosexual may have very different experiences of discovering and accepting their sexual orientation, simply because it is not the norm and is often considered unacceptable by society.

    Sexuality researcher Alfred Kinsey was among the first to conceptualize sexuality as a sexualigies rather than a strict dichotomy of gay or straight. To classify this continuum wiki heterosexuality and homosexuality, Kinsey created a six-point rating scale that ranges from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual.

    The Kinsey scale : The Kinsey scale indicates that sexuality can be measured by more than just heterosexuality and homosexuality. Sedgwick recognized that in American culture, males are subject to a clear wi,i between the two sides of this continuum, whereas females enjoy more fluidity. This can be illustrated by the way women in Sexualities can express homosocial feelings non-sexual regard for people of the same sex through hugging, handholding, and physical closeness.

    In contrast, American male behavior is subject to sexualities social sanction if it veers into homosocial territory because of societal homophobia. Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual, alternatve transgender LGBT. It can be expressed as antipathy, contempt, prejudice, aversion, or hatred; it may be wuki on irrational fear and is sometimes related to religious beliefs.

    Homophobia is observable in critical and hostile behavior such as discrimination and violence on the basis of sexual orientations that are non-heterosexual. Gays, lesbians, and bisexual people regularly experience stigma, harassment, discrimination, and violence based on their sexual orientation. Research has shown that gay, lesbian, and bisexual teenagers are at a higher risk of depression and suicide due to exclusion from social groups, rejection from peers and family, and negative media portrayals of homosexuals.

    Discrimination can occur in the workplace, in housing, at schools, and in numerous public alternative. Much of this discrimination wiki based on stereotypes sexulaities misinformation. Sexualites policies to prevent discrimination based on sexual orientation have only come into effect in the United States in the last few years. The wiik of empirical and clinical research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT populations are done with largely white, middle-class, well-educated samples.

    This demographic limits our alfernative of more marginalized sub-populations that are also affected by racism, classism, and other forms of oppression. In the United States, non-Caucasian LGBT individuals may find themselves in a double minority, in which they are not fully accepted or understood by Caucasian LGBT communities, and are sexuqlities not accepted by their own ethnic group.

    Many wiki experience racism in the dominant LGBT community where racial stereotypes merge with gender stereotypes. Queer theory is a perspective that problematizes or critiques the manner in which people have been taught to think about sexual orientation. Queer theorists reject the dichotomization division of sexual orientations into two mutually exclusive outcomes—homosexual or heterosexual.

    Rather, the perspective highlights the need for a more flexible and fluid conceptualization of sexuality—one that allows for change, negotiation, and freedom.

    The current system used to classify individuals as either heterosexual or wkki pits one orientation against the other. This mirrors other oppressive systems in modern culture, especially those surrounding gender and race black versus white, male sexualties female, etc. Privacy Policy.

    Skip to sexuaoities content. Gender and Sexuality. Search for:. Human Sexuality and Culture Though biology plays an important role, the way in which sexuality is expressed and acted upon is highly influenced by culture. Learning Objectives Examine cultural and historical influences on human sexuality.

    Human sexuality can be understood as part of the social life of humans, governed by social norms, implied rules of behavior, and the status quo. Each society has different norms about premarital sex, the age of sexual consent, homosexuality, masturbation, and other sexual behaviors.

    Individuals are socialized to these norms from an early age by their family, education system, peers, media, and religion. The messages that children are taught about sex play an important role in how they will grow into their sexual selves and express or not express their sexual motivations.

    How, what, when, and by whom children should be taught about sex is a matter of great debate in sex education. Learning Objectives Evaluate how society differently treats people identifying as homosexual, heterosexual, bisexual, atlernative, and queer. Key Altenative Key Points Sexual orientation is a personal quality that inclines people to feel romantic or sexual attraction or a combination of these to persons of a given sex or gender.

    Research has examined possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, but there has been no evidence that links sexual orientation to one factor. Alfred Kinsey was among the first to conceptualize sexuality as a continuum rather than a strict dichotomy of gay or straight. Altenative U. Gays, lesbians, and bisexual people regularly experience stigma, harassment, discrimination, and violence due to their sexual orientation, and as a result of institutionalized homophobia.

    Sexualities theorists reject the division of sexual orientations into two mutually exclusive outcomes homosexual or heterosexualalternatvie instead highlight the need for a more flexible and fluid conceptualization of sexuality that allows for change, negotiation, and freedom. Key Terms binary alrernative A state characterized by two mutually exclusive conditions, sexualitied as on or off, true or false, male or female. Heterosexism : A system of attitudes, biases, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships.

    It can include the presumption that everyone is heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the only norm and are therefore superior. Licenses and Attributions. CC licensed content, Shared previously.