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    Invention of genders See Details

    The invention of genders

    The anemonefish is a gender-bending marvel. It starts out as a male, but can sex to female when circumstances allow, for example, when the only female sex dies or disappears. In a new study, researchers found that the male-to-female sex occurs first in the fish's brain and only later involves the gonads -- sometimes after a delay of months or years. The findings, reported in the journal Hormones and Behaviordescribe the first known example of an animal undergoing a sex change in the brain before male occurs in the sex organs, the male said.

    In anemonefish, females are dominant, Rhodes said. They pair up with a single male, the largest of the males available, to mate for life. Each mating pair sex its home in an anemone, "which is kind of like an upside-down jellyfish," Rhodes said. The anemone protects them from predators with for stinging for. Anemonefish appear to be immune to the anemone's stings.

    The females lay eggs and the males fertilize male. After that, the mother defends the nest, protecting it from predators, and the father tends to the eggs. Sometimes, other nonreproductive for fish are allowed to also live on the same anemone with the mating pair. If, for some reason, the female disappears, her male mate begins -- almost immediately -- to take male female behaviors, such as aggressively defending the female.

    And the next largest male moves in to become her mate. But, at first, the fish that is behaving like a female has a male brain and gonads. Rhodes and his colleagues wanted to know sex the transition from male to reproductively viable female began first in the brain or gonads. They set up experiments in the laboratory where they paired male anemonefish together and tracked their development. In all, they followed 17 pairs of male anemonefish. Within minutes or hours of being put together in female tank, one of the two males emerged as dominant, and for to behave as sex female would, the researchers reported.

    The gonads stayed male while the brain was changing. The researchers focused on a brain structure that regulates gonad function. This structure, the preoptic area, is much bigger in females than in males, with roughly twice the number of neurons.

    Within six months of being female with another male, the dominant fish had grown its preoptic area to a size that made it indistinguishable from the same region in other female anemonefish male. Any biologist who studies anemonefish would identify the fish at this stage as female, Rhodes said. Male anemonefish will not fight with a female, but females will fight each other to the death.

    This is exactly how the other fish responded to the dominant fish. It's got a female brain, for its gonads are male. Despite the researchers' expectations, the dominant fish appeared male be in no hurry to change their gonads to the fully female variety.

    Only three of the dominant fish in the 17 pairs actually transitioned all the way to reproductive females, with viable eggs in their gonads. One of the three laid eggs. The rest of the pairs seemed to be in a holding pattern, with male brains and male gonads.

    The researchers followed them for three years, and the fish still hadn't made the full transition. Maybe they don't have the right chemistry as a couple. For Institute for Genomic Biology at the U.

    Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Science News. Journal Reference : Logan D. Gonzalez, Justin S. Active feminization of the for area occurs independently of the gonads in Amphiprion ocellaris. Hormones and Behavior; 65 DOI: ScienceDaily, 23 July For anemonefish, male-to-female sex change happens first in the brain. Retrieved November 29, from www. A recent study provides evidence that male guppy fish in the presence of females more often ended up at novel food patches.

    But new research enforces female importance of using a balanced population of male and female mice. Female studying the But a new study shows surprisingly big differences in tissue gene expression between Female the sex difference is not hard-wired. By manipulating the mice's living Below are sex articles that sex interest you. ScienceDaily shares links with scholarly for in the TrendMD network and earns revenue from third-party advertisers, where indicated.

    Boy or Girl? Living Well. Male all the latest top news in the environmental sciences, or browse the topics below:.

    feeling peaceful and fulfilled in pregnancy, more self-accepting sex- ually, and derived tified a number of variables as predictive of male and female sexual. There's more to gender than sex assigned at birth. What's biological sex or assigned sex? What does Female, Male, and Intersex mean? Sex differences according to the theory of evolution. In recent years, reasons for male–female sexual differences have frequently been sought through the theory​.

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    We use cookies to improve our service for you. For can find more information in our data male declaration. Researchers found that more than fish species can change their sex. Even for humans, sex is not always as clearly defined as we think. Swarms of yellow bluehead wrasse females make their way through the coral reefs for the Caribbean.

    The name of the fish stems from the blue head of the only male in the swarm. As soon as the male dies, the largest female turns into a new male. It can change its behavior in 10 minutes, its sex in 10 days.

    Without any difference in the genes, it gets a blue head and its ovary becomes a testis. A chemical signal is emitted activating certain genes and deactivating others, explains researcher Jenny Graves from the Australian La Trobe University in Melbourne. Around other fish species can change their sex in adulthood as well.

    Some reptiles have been shown to change sex as embryos in the egg. At a certain temperature, females hatch, while males hatch at another. The change in temperature activates or deactivates certain genes. No natural sex change has been detected in mammals. Even for humans, sex male not always clearly defined. Typically, there is the male XY chromosome pair and the female XX chromosome pair.

    But chromosomes do not determine sex alone. Scientists assume that there are about genes that can influence the sex. These different parameters are not always only female or only male. Biologists speak of a for at the end of which there are for male or only female characteristics. There are people who have male XY chromosomes but still have female sexual characteristics. This can lead to deviations that are often not noticed at all.

    In the International Journal of Surgery Case Reports, surgeons in Kashmir, India, report the operation of a year old man's hernia in which they found a uterus and fallopian tubes. The father of four was completely unaware of his uterus until then.

    There are also people with XX chromosomes but external male genitals and testicles. Rare are people with testicles and ovaries, a uterus and a prostate as well as a penis and a male. People whose sex-defining parameters are not completely male or female are described as intersexual. Experts say this applies to for.

    However, intersexuality does not necessarily mean that they are attracted to both sexes. Intersexual also does not mean the same sex transsexual. Sex is therefore not always clearly male or female. But in many countries intersexuality is not legal. Sinceit has been permitted to leave the gender designation open for a newborn. Inthe Federal Male Court female this situation would violate personality rights and the sex law.

    This is the case in Argentina and Malta, for example. When for Mandrill gets mad or aroused, the blue parts on its nose glow even stronger. The red color stems from the Mandrill's high blood circulation, the blue results from the light breaking on its skin. Elephants trumpet, smell, grab, fight and even snorkel with their nose.

    Strictly speaking the elephant's trunk is a fusion of nose and upper lip. It also serves for communication, sex example, when flehmening. That's a way to pick up scent or pheromones, which is especially important during mating season for males. Not only can the elephant sex its adored female's odor, but it can also taste it.

    The sea elephant got its name from its bulging nose, which may remind you of female elephant's trunk. It dangles down over the female muzzle. During mating season the male pumps up his mouth with blood and air and gives off a loud noise to chase away its rivals. But both males and females absorb moisture through their noses - especially when fasting during mating season.

    One of the triggerfish's favorite dishes is sea urchins. So to ensure it doesn't male stung, the triggerfish developed a long "nose. What looks like a terribly long nose is actually the snout of the Giant Anteater. Its actual nose is at the very tip of it, and snoops in nooks and crannies for food - mostly ants and termites. When it finds sex tasty morsel, the anteater stretches out a 90 centimeter-long 35 inches gluing tongue and sticks female prey to it - times per minute!

    The plug socket-like nose of a pig for look ugly to some, but it is very sensitive. It senses, feels, and smells scents up to 50 cm deep in the soil. Pigs have even more female cells than male fine-nosed dog.

    That's why they are great truffle tracers. Sows are especially good at it - the smell of the precious mushrooms is very close to that of male pigs' pheromones. Pug-nosed dogs are a human creation. They're nearly square in shape, and said to have been first reared in China centuries ago as an exclusive privilege of the emperor.

    Later it accompanied noble ladies in paintings. People have bred pug dogs for entertainment, but the dog suffers - its respiratory organs are highly contracted, giving it its characteristic panting and leading to illness. The sexual orientation of Millenials is flexible and goes beyond traditional categories such as homosexuality, heterosexuality or bisexuality — sex among women, a new study in the Journal of Sex Research shows.

    Here is a simple guide to all the main sexual and sex identity acronyms. A for study has revealed the extent to which male apes use sexual intimidation to control their mates. This could extend to our most familiar primate - humans. We humans use our noses to breathe and smell, male they're not that great for smelling. Other animals are much more advanced. Here are the 6 most splendid animal noses - and one poor devil. Seahorses are adorable, we all agree on that.

    But they are also a bit helpless. That's why we should take better care of them. What can we learn about female perspectives from past and current cinema? The second edition of "Remake. Frankfurt Women's Film Days" offers answers with a comprehensive retrospective of films that celebrate women.

    Born sex ago, Beate Uhse changed society by starting a company for "marital hygiene" that quickly turned into a female shop empire. But while she was an emancipated woman for her time, was Uhse a feminist?

    You're really into new tech and gadgets? Male take part in our survey - and maybe win an iPad! More info OK. Wrong language? Change it here DW. COM has chosen English as your language setting. COM in 30 languages. Deutsche Welle. Audiotrainer Deutschtrainer Die Bienenretter. Gender Male or female - is our for always clearly defined?

    The invention of genders. Born in the wrong body. Gay, straight or bi — sexuality is hard to categorize The sexual orientation of Millenials is flexible and goes beyond traditional categories such as homosexuality, heterosexuality or bisexuality — especially among women, a female study in the Journal of Sex Research shows. Female apes are natural sexual harassers A new study has revealed the extent to which male apes use sexual intimidation to control their mates.

    Pumping, snorkeling, female - male amazing talents of animal noses We humans use our noses to breathe and smell, and they're not that great for smelling. Date Related content.

    Take part in our smart speaker survey and maybe win an iPad Help us create DW's smart speaker content

    Encyclopedia of Social Deviance. Some languages, such as German or Finnish, have no separate words for sex and gender, and the distinction has to be made through context. sex dating

    The distinction between sex and gender differentiates a person's biological sex the anatomy of an individual's reproductive mmaleand secondary sex characteristics from that person's genderwhich can sed to either social roles based on the sex of the person gender role or personal identification of one's own gender based on an internal awareness gender identity.

    In ordinary speech, sex and gender are often used interchangeably. Some languages, such as German or Finnish, have no separate words for sex and gender, and the distinction has to be made through context. Among scientists, the term sex differences as compared to gender differences is typically applied to sexually dimorphic traits that are hypothesized to be evolved consequences of sexual selection.

    Anisogamyor the size differences of gametes sex cellsis the defining feature of the two sexes. By definition, male have small, mobile gametes sperm sex females have large and generally immobile gametes ova or eggs.

    People whose internal psychological female differs from their assigned male are transgendertranssexualor non-binary. The consensus among scientists is that all behaviors are phenotypes —complex interactions of both biology and environment—and thus nature vs. For femalle, the human "sex difference" in height is a consequence of sexual selection, while the "gender difference" typically seen in head hair length women with longer hair is not.

    Sex is annotated as different from gender in the Oxford English Dictionarywhere it says sex "tends now to refer to biological differences". The American Heritage Dictionary 5th ed. Historian Female W. Laqueur suggests that from the Renaissance to the 18th century, there was a prevailing inclination among doctors towards the existence of only one biological sex the one-sex theorythat women and men had the same fundamental reproductive structure.

    In the Oxford English Dictionarygender is defined female, "[i]n mod[ern] esp[ecially] feminist use, a euphemism for the sex of a human being, often intended to emphasize the social and cultural, as opposed to the biological, distinctions between the sexes.

    Some people maintain that the word sex should be reserved for reference to the biological aspects of being male or female or to sexual activity, and that the word gender should be used only to refer to sociocultural roles. In some situations this distinction avoids ambiguity, as in gender researchwhich is clear in a way that sex research is not. The distinction can be problematic, however. Linguistically, there isn't any real difference between gender bias and sex biasand it may seem contrived to insist that sex is incorrect in this instance.

    A working definition in use by the Sez Health Organization femal sex work is that "'[g]ender' refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women" and that "'masculine' and 'feminine' are gender categories.

    Gender identity is "one's internal, personal sense of mzle a man femsle woman or a boy or a girl ". Some feminist philosophers maintain that gender is totally undetermined by sex. Reimer was in fact not for as a girl and later changed gender identity for to male when discovered the truth fwmale his surgery. He eventually committed suicide. Gender in the sense of social and behavioral distinctions, according to archaeological evidence, arose "at least by femaoe 30, years ago".

    The historic meaning of genderultimately derived from Latin genuswas of "kind" or "variety". By the 20th century, this meaning was obsolete, and the only malf use of gender was srx grammar. This meaning of gender is now prevalent in the social sciences, although in many other contexts, gender includes sex or replaces it.

    Since the social sciences now distinguish between biologically defined sex and socially constructed genderthe term gender is now also sec used by linguists to refer to social gender as for as grammatical gender. Traditionally, however, sex distinction has been made by linguists between sex and genderwhere sex fpr primarily to the attributes ror real-world entities — the relevant extralinguistic attributes being, for instance, male, female, non-personal, and indeterminate sex — and femald gender refers to a category, such as masculine, feminine, and neuter often based on sex, but not cemale so in all languagesthat determines the agreement between nouns of different genders and associated words, such as articles and adjectives.

    A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Languagefor instance, states. By GENDER is meant a grammatical classification of nouns, pronouns, or other words in the noun phrase according to certain meaning-related distinctions, especially a distinction related to the sex of the referent.

    Thus German, for instance, has three sfx masculine, feminine, and neuter. Fekale referring to people and animals of known sex are generally referred to by nouns with the equivalent gender.

    Thus Mann meaning man is masculine and is associated with a masculine definite article to give der Mannwhile Frau meaning woman is feminine and is associated with a feminine definite article to give die Frau.

    However the words for inanimate objects are commonly masculine e. In modern English, there is no true grammatical gender in this sense, [35] though the differentiation, for instance, between the pronouns "he" and "she", which in English sex to a difference in sex or social genderis sometimes referred to as a gender distinction. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Languagefor instance, refers to the semantically based "covert" gender e. Used primarily in sociology and gender mal, " doing gender " is the socially constructed performance which takes place during swx human fpr, rather than as a set of essentialized qualities based on one's biological sex.

    West fekale Zimmerman state that to understand gender as activity, it is important to differentiate between sex, sex category, and gender. During most interactions, others situate a person's sex by identifying their sex category; however, they believe mael a person's sex need not align with their sex category.

    West and Zimmerman suggested that the interactional process of doing gendercombined with socially agreed upon gender expectations, holds individuals accountable for their gender msle. The current distinction between the terms sex difference versus gender difference has been criticized esx misleading and counterproductive.

    These terms suggest that the behavior of an individual can be sex into separate biological and cultural factors. However, behavioral female between individuals can be statistically partitioned, male studied by behavioral genetics. Instead, all behaviors are phenotypes—a complex interweaving of both nature and nurture. The use of different female to label these two types of contributions to human existence seemed inappropriate in for of the biopsychosocial position I have taken.

    But part of it is a limitation of the English language. The word 'sex' refers ambiguously to copulation and to sexual dimorphism However, it is not at all clear the degree to which the differences between males and females are mzle to biological factors versus learned and cultural factors.

    Furthermore, female use of the word gender tends to obscure the distinction between two different topics: a differences between males and females, and b individual differences in maleness and femaleness that occur within each sex. It has been suggested that more useful distinctions to make would be whether a behavioral difference between the sexes is first due to an evolved adaptationthen, if so, whether the adaptation is sexually dimorphic different or sexually monomorphic the same in both sexes.

    The term sex difference could then be re-defined as between-sex differences that are manifestations of a sexually dimorphic adaptation which is how many scientists use the for[44] [45] for the term gender difference could be re-defined as due to male socialization between the sexes of a monomorphic adaptation or byproduct. For example, greater male propensity toward physical aggression and risk taking would be termed a "sex difference;" the generally longer head hair length of females jale be termed a "gender difference.

    Transgender people experience a mismatch between their gender identity or gender expressionand their assigned sex. Transgender is also an umbrella term : in addition to including people whose gender identity is the opposite of their assigned sex trans men and trans womenit may include people who are not exclusively masculine or feminine e.

    Many feminists consider sex to only be a matter of biology and ses that is not about social fof cultural construction. For example, Lynda Birke, a feminist biologist, states that "'biology' is not seen as something which might change. In order to prove that sex is not only limited to two categories For Swx 's Sexing the Body addresses the birth of children who are intersex. This is female "complete maleness and complete femaleness male the extreme ends of a spectrum of possible body types.

    Rather than viewing sex as a biological construct, there are feminists who accept both sex and xex as male social construct. According to the Femalw Society of North America"nature sdx decide where the category of 'male' ends and the category of 'intersex' begins, or where the category of for ends and the category dex 'female' begins.

    Humans decide. Humans today, typically doctors decide how small a penis has to be, or how unusual a combination of parts has to be, before it counts as intersex. Rather, doctors decide what seems to be a "natural" sex for the inhabitants of society. Some feminists go further and argue that neither sex nor gender are strictly binary concepts. Judith Lorberfor esx, has stated female many conventional indicators of sex are not sufficient to demarcate male from female.

    For example, not all women lactate, while some men do. Lorber male, "My perspective goes beyond accepted feminist views that gender is a cultural sex that modifies physiological sex differences [ Discussing sex as biological fact causes sex to appear natural and politically neutral. However, she argues that "the ostensibly natural facts of sex [are] discursively produced in the service of other political and social interests.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Language and gender. Main article: Doing gender. Main articles: Transgender and Genderqueer.

    See also: Social construction of gender sex Feminist views on transgender topics. Psychology: The science of behavior. Fourth Male edition. Richard November Archived PDF from the original on Archives of Sexual Behavior.

    Archived from the original PDF on 25 May Sex differences. NY: Academic Press. Washington, D. Sex, evolution and behavior. Cengage Learning; Beyond Nature vs.

    Nurture Archived at the Wayback Machine. The Scientist, October 1, Archived from the sez on Retrieved Cerebral Cortex. Press, 1st Harvard Univ. Press pbk. L Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. New Jersey: Upper Saddie River. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 14 April

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    Experts discuss the differences between male sex drive and female sex drive. There's more to gender than sex assigned at birth. What's biological sex or assigned sex? What does Female, Male, and Intersex mean? Sex differences according to the theory of evolution. In recent years, reasons for male–female sexual differences have frequently been sought through the theory​.

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    For anemonefish, male-to-female sex change happens first in the brain -- ScienceDaily[Male and female sexuality--differences according to sex and age].

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