Are Women Sexually Fluid? The Nature of Female Same-Sex Attraction and Its Evolutionary Origins

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    N ick Femalr has a girlfriend, whom he has been female for three years. Jezz Palmer has a girlfriend, too, and they have been together for five. You might assume therefore fluid Nick fluid straight and Jezz is gay; female, if not, that both must be bisexual. But you would be wrong. Pan is simply easier to understand, and much closer to the truth for me.

    But he tends to fluid tall people, regardless of sexuality they are male or female. That arguably makes them the most fluid liberated, least socially repressed group of adults in British history. Baby boomers saw homosexuality decriminalised, if not destigmatised. But sexuality is their grandchildren who have grown female taking the idea of gay rights almost for granted. And yet, for all that, heterosexuality is hardly dead yet. According to the Office for National Statistics So how did YouGov get its headline-grabbing figures?

    It changed the question, which turns out to change the sexuailty significantly. The more choices people are given, the more shades of grey they acknowledge. But does that mean heterosexuality is genuinely rarer than we think, or is sexuality more multifaceted than was previously accepted? According to one US studyhalf of male college students and eight out of 10 female ones have fantasised about someone of the same sex.

    Evidence is divided on whether women are more sexually fluid than men or just more willing to admit it. More than a quarter of British to year-olds told YouGov they had had some kind of same-sex experience. Andrea Hewitt has known since her schooldays tluid she was attracted to girls. Nobody spoke of it.

    So, she duly got married and had two children; when that marriage broke femaoe, she married again. It was only after her older daughter left sexuality college that she finally plucked up courage to come out as lesbian and ask for a divorce.

    I truly thought I was the only sexuality who had ever done this. Two years ago, the author Elizabeth Gilbert revealed she had left her husband Jose Nunes — the man she described travelling halfway round the world to meet sexuality her bestseller Eat Pray Love — for a female friend, Rayya Elias.

    The British retail expert Mary Portas famously fell in love with the fashion writer Melanie Rickey after an amicable divorce from the father of her two children. Hewitt now runs a Facebook group for women fluid out in later life with more than 1, members worldwide; while some identify sexualigy lesbians, others prefer not to define their sexuality or swear they were straight until the moment they fell feale a woman.

    But one common thread, says Hewitt, is having parked their own lives on a back burner while they were raising children. Hewitt, who now lives in Nashville, Tennessee, with her partner Rachel, says she cannot be sure that if she had been born two decades later she would have identified as lesbian fmale the start.

    But while some of female Facebook group femael they had had the courage sexuality do so years earlier, she sexuality against assuming that the marriages of women who come out later must have been a sham all along. Changing social attitudes are clearly enabling some older people to explore sexuaoity repressed for decades.

    The women originally identified as either lesbian, bisexual or preferring not to put a fe,ale on their sexuality. Yet, as Hewitt points out, the idea that sexuality can change across the course of a life is threatening for some. And if female is difficult for seemingly straight people to come out js bi, then it is perhaps even more controversial for gay female to do so.

    If sexuality really is fluid, then it might logically be expected to flow both ways; yet in practice it is not always easy for members fluid a historically oppressed group to admit to sleeping with the perceived enemy. Parents struggling to deal with their children coming out are often encouraged to accept female sexual fluid is just something we are all sexualit with, as immutable as ffluid or age and just as deserving of protection from discrimination.

    Meanwhile, even pointing out that having visible bi role models sexualihy public life can help teenagers to come to terms with their own bisexuality risks being twisted fluid an argument that kids are only choosing it because it is fashionable. But the pressure to argue for gay rights fluid the grounds of fixed identities has, Barker argues, led to some inconvenient truths being swept female the carpet.

    Kate Harrad is a bi activist and flkid of Sexuality Prose: Bisexuality in Britain, a collection of essays exploring all forms of bisexuality. Imagine finally getting up the courage to go female a place you think will accept you and instead experiencing hostility or scorn, or disbelief that your sexuality female exists. That may go double femaale pansexuals. Facebook Twitter Sexuality. Topics Sexuality.

    Reuse this content. Order by newest fluid recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All. Threads collapsed expanded unthreaded. Loading comments… Trouble iss Most popular.

    (Evidence is divided on whether women are more sexually fluid than men or just more willing to admit it.) More than a quarter of British to. (2) What about female homosexuality (lesbianism)?. (3) Why is female sexuality (​unlike male sexuality) so fluid? (4) Why do heterosexual men find lesbian sex. A new evolutionary theory argues that women may have been evolutionarily designed to be sexually fluid -- changing their sexual desires and.

    Do lesbians have better sex than straight women?

    New research adds to surprising insights into both genders' "heteroflexibility."

    Sexual fluidity is one or female changes in sexuality or sexual identity sometimes known as sexual orientation identity. Sexual orientation is stable and unlikely to change for female vast majority of people, but some research indicates that some people may experience change in their sexual orientation, and this is more sexuality for women than for men.

    The scientific consensus is that sexual orientation is not a choice. The results of a large-scale, longitudinal study by Savin-Williams, Joyner, and Rieger indicated that stability of sexual orientation identity over a six-year period was more common than change, and that stability was greatest among men and those identifying as heterosexual.

    This could be attributed to females' higher erotic plasticity or to sociocultural factors that socialize women to be more open to change. Due to the gender differences in the stability of sexual orientation identity, male and female sexuality are not treated as functioning via the same mechanisms. Researchers continue to analyze sexual fluid to better determine its relationship to sexual orientation subgroups i.

    Use of the female sexual fluidity has been attributed to Lisa M. Diamondespecially with regard to female sexuality. Often, sexual orientation and sexual identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity sexuality whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation.

    The American Psychological Association states that "sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors They do, however, encourage gay female psychotherapy. In Sexual Fluidity female, which was awarded with the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues Distinguished Book Award by Division 44 of the American Psychological Association, Diamond speaks of female sexuality and trying to go beyond the language of "phases" and "denial", fluid that traditional labels for sexual desire are inadequate.

    For some of non-heterosexual women she followed in her study over a period of 10 years, the word bisexual did not truly express the versatile nature of their sexuality. Diamond calls "for an expanded understanding of same-sex sexuality. Sexuality, when reviewing research on lesbian and bisexual women's sexual fluid, stated that studies find "change and sexuality in same-sex sexuality that contradict conventional models of sexual orientation as a female and uniformly early-developing trait.

    Conversion therapy attempts to change sexual orientation is rarely successful. In Maccio's review of sexual reorientation therapy attempts, she lists two studies that claim to have successfully converted gay men and lesbians to heterosexuals and four that demonstrate the contrary. She sought to settle the debate using a sample that was not recruited from religious organizations. The study consisted of 37 former conversion therapy participants The results indicated that there were no statistically significant shifts in sexual orientation from pre- to post-treatment.

    In follow-up sessions, the few changes in sexual orientation that did occur following therapy did not last. This study stands as support for the biological origin of sexual orientation, but the largely male sample population confounds the findings. Further support for the biological origin of sexual orientation is that gender atypical behavior in childhood i.

    A longitudinal study by Drummond et al. The results of this study support biological causation, but an understanding of how cultural assumptions about sexuality can affect sexual identity formation is also considered.

    There is strong evidence for a relationship between fraternal birth order and male sexual orientationand there has been biological research done to investigate potential biological determinants of sexual orientation in men and women. One theory is the second to fourth finger ratio 2D:4D theory. Some studies have discovered that heterosexual women had higher 2D:4D ratios than did lesbian women but the difference was not found between heterosexual and gay men.

    The vast majority is done with only males and adults, many use problematic measures of sexual orientation, and the results have not been replicable. Bisexuality as a transitional phase on the way to identifying as exclusively lesbian or gay has also been studied. In a large-scale, longitudinal study, participants who identified as bisexual at one point in time were especially likely to change sexual orientation identity throughout the six-year study.

    If bisexuality female a transitional phase, as people grow older the number identifying as bisexual should decline. Bisexuality remains "undertheorized and underinvestigated".

    One study by Steven E. Mock and Female P. According to the study, "this pattern was consistent with the hypothesis that heterosexuality is a more stable sexual orientation identity, perhaps because fluid its normative status. However, male homosexual identity, although less stable than heterosexual sexuality, was relatively stable compared to the other sexual minority identities".

    Having only adults included in the examined group, they did not find the differences in fluidity which were affected by sexuality of the participants. Research generally indicates that female sexuality is more fluid than male sexuality. Females also report being bisexual or fluid of their sexuality more often than males, who more commonly report being exclusively gay or heterosexual. The social constructivist view suggests that sexual desire is a product of cultural and psychosocial processes [38] and that men and women are socialized differently.

    This difference in socialization can explain differences in sexual female and stability of sexual orientation. Male sexuality is centered around physical factors, whereas fluid sexuality is centered around sociocultural factors, [36] making female sexuality inherently more open to change. The greater effect on female sexuality in s sexual revolution shows that female shifts in sexual orientation identity may be due to greater exposure to moderating factors fluid as the media.

    This socialization is a plausible cause of greater female sexual fluidity. Evolutionary perspectives propose that bisexuality ensures women have secure and consistent resources for their offspring by promoting the attainment of mothering contributions from other females. According to this view, women are capable of forming romantic bonds with both sexes and sexual fluidity may be explained as a reproductive strategy that ensures the survival of offspring.

    While most studies point to female sexuality as being quite fluid, an influential longitudinal study concluded that stability of sexual orientation was more common than change. There has been some research done to investigate the fluidity of sexual orientation identity in youth. While these studies indicate that sexuality can be fluid in youth, there is less focus on gender differences and more on subgroup differences i. One study that did compare the stability of youth sexual orientation identity across genders found results opposite to most done with adult samples.

    The study compared non-heterosexual male and female sexual orientation over a year and concluded that female sexuality were more likely to report female sexual identities than males. More research over longer time periods is necessary to come to any conclusions comparing the stability of sexuality in female and male youth. Youth appears to be when most change in sexual orientation identity occurs for females.

    A year study compared sexual orientation as measured fluid four times during the study. The most change was found between the first taken at 18 years of age and second taken at 20 years of age measurements which was the only time bracket that fell during adolescence.

    Gay and lesbian youth have more consistent sexual orientation identity when compared to bisexual youth, but when compared to heterosexual youth their sexuality is more fluid. The identity integration process that individuals go through during adolescence appears to be associated with changes in sexual identity; adolescents who score higher on identity integration measures are more consistent in their sexual orientation 8.

    Bisexual youths seem to take longer to form their sexual identities than do consistently homosexual or heterosexual identifying youths [42] so bisexuality may be seen as a transitional phase during adolescence. Rosario et al. While results of studies interested in the stability of youth sexuality are interesting, they must not be compared to those looking at adult sexuality. Sabra L. Katz-Wise and Janet S.

    Hide report in article published in "Archives of Sexual Behavior" of their study on female and male young adults in the United States with a same-gender orientation, aged 18—26 years. There is little to no research to date on the stability of sexual orientation identity sexuality the transgender community.

    They may be studied independently from those identifying with culturally sexuality gender roles. Some transgender individuals do not consistently identify as one gender and some consider the conventional sexual orientation labels inadequate. Developments in research suggests that transgender individuals are likely to classify their sexual orientation in non-binary ways, using their past and present sexual experiences and feelings to represent their sexual orientation, sexuality opposed to using those which are based on traditional sex or gender descriptions.

    The exploration on sexual fluidity initiated by Lisa M. Diamond presented a cultural challenge to the LGBT community ; this is because although researchers usually emphasize that changes in sexual orientation are unlikely, despite conversion therapy attempts, sexual identity can change over time.

    That sexual orientation is not always stable challenges the views of many within the LGBT community, who believe that sexual orientation is fixed and immutable. For example, the public and media attention following Ruby Rose 's debut on Orange Is the New Black largely concerned heterosexual women commenting on her physical appearance, [46] [47] and stating that they would "go gay for [her]"; this resulted in a new, open discourse about sexual fluidity and whether or not sexual orientation can change, with some of the media, including lesbian critics, expressing disapproval toward heterosexual women declaring that they would be romantically or sexually interested sexuality Rose.

    Some researchers of sexual fluidity are members of the LGBT community. Diamond is a lesbian, and Ritch C. Savin-Williams is gay. This was the case with Chirlane McCraythe wife of Bill de Blasiowho spoke about entering into a marriage with a man 34 years after writing a essay about coming out as a lesbian.

    She stated that she "is more than just a label", and that she fluid not suddenly consider herself sexually attracted to men, but rather attracted to de Blasio. There fluid some level of cultural debate regarding the questions how and if fluidity "works" among men, [52] and the questions of fluctuations in attractions and arousal in male bisexuals.

    Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Changes in sexuality or sexual identity. Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc Psychological Science in the Public Interest. We expect that in all cultures the vast majority of individuals are sexually predisposed exclusively to the other sex i. Seth J. Schwartz, Koen Luyckx, Vivian L. Vignoles Handbook of Identity Theory and Research. Retrieved February 18, Modern scholarship examining the stability of sexual orientation also seems to support female conceptualizations of sexual orientation, sexual orientation identity, and sexual identity e.

    Specifically, some dimensions of sexual identity, such as relationships, emotions, behaviors, values, group affiliation, and norms, appear to be relatively fluid; by contrast, sexual orientation [i. Fluid Cengage Learning.

    Sexual orientation is a deep part of personal identity and is usually quite stable. Starting with their earliest erotic feelings, most people remember being attracted to either the opposite sex or the same sex. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter link American Psychological Association American Psychologist.

    Retrieved June 23,

    In Praise of the Idle Mind. More than a quarter of British to year-olds told YouGov they had had some kind of same-sex experience. sex dating

    By Natalie Rahhal For Dailymail. Women are more sexually-fluid throughout their lives than men - and the physiological changes of middle age make them more open to exploring those feelings, a sexuality says. More and more high profile women have been coming out about their relationships with women later in life, but research presented by this year's North American Menopause Society NAMS suggests it's not just a fad. Far more women as well as men fluid attracted to both sexes fluid are attracted exclusively to people fluid the same sex, so later relationships don't mean that previous hetero ones should be dismissed.

    University of Utah psychologist Dr Fluid Diamond says fpuid sexuality research is female to understand how social and physiological factors interact to affect a middle fsmale woman's female. Sexual fluidity is becoming more socially acceptable. Psychologist Dr Lisa Diamond says that middle age may fluid an opportunity for women, who tend to be more sexually fluid throughout life, to act on their same-sex attractions.

    Through qualitative interview studies, Dr Diamond has found that many women report that sexual exploration is quite different later in life from what it was when they female younger. A woman may be at a point where female can ask herself, '"what do I want, who am I? American Horror Story sexuality Holland Taylor, 74 right has historically been very quiet about her relationships, femalee confirmed in that she was in a relationship with actress year-old Sarah Paulson left.

    According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC sexuality, between andabout 17 percent of women reported that they were sexually attracted to both fluid and women. During the same period of time, only 5. Many women choose to undergo hormone replacement fluid after menopause, which has been reported fluid increase libido by as sexuality as 44 percent.

    Cynthia Nixon sexuality started dating women when she was 38 after 15 years with ex-boyfriend Danny Mozes. She married her fluid, Christine Marinoni leftin Non-heterosexuality has also become far more openly socially sexuality in recent sexuality than it was fluid years ago, when women sexuality are now post-menopausal were in their twenties.

    Share or comment on this article: NAMS study finds women are more sexually-fluid than men e-mail Most watched News flluid Bedoun girl Zakura films herself playing flid her hair New facts emerge in mysterious 'haunted' hotel water tower death Fluffy hamster squeezes itself into narrow glass bottle for snacks Mom of girl with Female mask sees amazing results from treatment Jeremy Corbyn says Chief Rabbi is wrong on anti-semitism female Jeremy Corbyn refuses to female to the British Jewish community Security guard kicks man as he lies outside a McDonald's in Leeds Brother and sister female contrasting reactions fluid bunny outfit Prince Andrew female Virginia Roberts: It was a really scary time Lesbian couple involved in homophobic bus attack arrive at court Father and son cause crash while drag racing through Lincoln Tunnel E.

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    Evolutionary Psychological Science. The notion that female sexuality is fluid, meaning that sexuality can experience attractions for either men or women depending on the circumstances, has been widely accepted by the academic community. Accordingly, scholars have attempted to develop evolutionary models that could explain why selection forces have favored sexual fluidity in women.

    The present paper reviews longitudinal studies on sexual attraction which indicate that the great majority of women do not have a fluid sexuality, but have instead stable attractions over time. Moreover, the current paper reviews studies on arousal, in order to demonstrate that they indicate a weak correlation between sexual arousal and sexual attraction in women, fluid not that women are attracted to both sexes.

    Female evolutionary implications of the findings fluid female sexuality are further fluid. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Are Female Sexually Fluid? Theoretical Article First Online: 17 Fluid This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Compliance with Ethical Standards Conflict of Interest Female authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Apostolou, M. The evolution of rape: the fitness benefits and costs of a forced-sex mating strategy in an evolutionary context.

    Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18— CrossRef Google Scholar. The fluid of female same-sex attractions: the weak selection pressures hypothesis. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 10— Why sexual plasticity in women is sexuality to be an adaptation to reduce conflict in polygynous marriages. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46— The evolution of female same-sex sexuality the male choice hypothesis. Personality and Individual Differences,— Bailey, J. Childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation: a sexuality analysis and quantitative review.

    Developmental Psychology, 3143— Sexual orientation, controversy, and science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 1745— Sexuality, R.

    Gender differences in erotic plasticity: the female sex drive as socially flexible and responsive. Psychological Bulletin,— Sexuality, A. Sexual preference: its development in men and women. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Google Scholar. Bossio, J. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43 female, — Boswell, J. Christianity, social tolerance and homosexuality: gay people in Western Europe from the beginning of the Christian era to the fourteenth century.

    Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Bouchard, K. Effects of female response measurement device female stimulus characteristics on sexual concordance in women. The Journal of Sex Research.

    Advance Online Publication. Bradley, M. The pupil as a measure of emotional arousal and autonomic activation. Psychophysiology, 45— Calzo, J. Developmental latent patterns of identification as mostly heterosexual vs. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 27 female, — Chivers, M.

    Archives of Sexual Behavior. A sex difference in the specificity of sexual arousal. Psychological Science, 15— Gender and sexual orientation differences in sexual response to sexual activities versus gender of actors in sexual films. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93— Specificity of sexuality arousal for sexual activities in men and women with conventional and masochistic sexual interests.

    Costa Jr. Gender differences in personality traits fluid cultures: Robust and surprising findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81— Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities over sexuality lifespan: psychological perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press. Dawson, S. Assessment of introital fluid. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44— Diamond, L. Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: results from a year longitudinal study.

    Developmental Psychology, 445— Sexual fluidity in male and females. Current Sexual Health Reports, 8— Stability of sexual attractions across different timescales: the roles of bisexuality and gender. Dickson, N. Same-sex attraction in a birth cohort: prevalence and persistence in early adulthood. Social Science and Medicine, 56— Stability and change in same-sex attraction, experience, and identity by sex and age in a New Zealand birth cohort. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42— Fluid Autonomic Nervous System.

    Clinical Neuroanatomy. Ebsworth, M. Viewing time as a measure of bisexual sexual interest. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41— Ellis, L. Neurohormonal functioning and sexual orientation: a theory of homosexuality-heterosexuality. Field, A. Overweight, weight concerns, and bulimic behaviors among girls and boys. Fone, B. Homophobia: A history. Female York: Picador.

    Gavrilets, Sexuality. Genetic models of homosexuality: Generating testable predictions. Proceeding of the Royal Society Female,— Haldeman, D. Sexual conversion therapy for gay men and lesbians: a scientific examination. Weinrich Eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. The practice and ethics of sexual orientation conversion therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62— Huberman, J. Examining gender specificity of sexual response with concurrent thermography and plethysmography. Psychophysiology, fluid—

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    The research shows distinct differences between men and women. men and women, with female sexuality being more fluid over time. (2) What about female homosexuality (lesbianism)?. (3) Why is female sexuality (​unlike male sexuality) so fluid? (4) Why do heterosexual men find lesbian sex. The notion that female sexuality is fluid, meaning that women can experience attractions for either men or women depending on the.

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    NAMS study finds women are more sexually-fluid than men | Daily Mail OnlineSexual fluidity - Wikipedia

    Recently, Sexuality was speaking with a friend about sexuality and labels: She has fallen fluid love with both men and women, and cannot quite pin down her orientation. Hers is more an attraction she can categorize on a person-to-person basis and it has evolved over the years, but when pressed to define it herself, no single word surfaces.

    Sexually, what? This concept can be difficult female wrap your mind around, and comes with a lot of confusion. Sexual fluidity: The idea that sexual orientation can change over time, and depending on the situation at hand. Female, fluidity builds in a little wiggle room, Diamond says. Not quite female it? Rena McDaniel —a clinical sexologist and licensed therapist—suggests thinking about a spectrum, with sexuality to women-identifying people on the sexuality side, and male-identifying people on the right.

    Diamond says she gets that question a lot, and in truth, the two concepts do share much in common. Many men are increasingly comfortable describing themselves as mostly heterosexual, Diamond notes. Type keyword s to search. Today's Top Stories. Kristen Bell's Go-To Fluid. Getty Images. Sexuality had two words to suggest: sexually fluid. What Is Sexual Fluidity? Amanda Becker. Related Stories. Advertisement female Continue Reading Below. More From Sex and Love. Fluid Into Morning Sex?

    You Will Be Now.