A Brief History of Human Sex

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    Human human is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. Social aspects deal with the effects of human society on one's sexuality, while spirituality concerns an individual's spiritual connection with others.

    Sexuality also affects and is affected by cultural, political, legal, philosophical, moralethicaland religious aspects of life. Interest in sexual activity typically increases when an individual reaches puberty.

    Hypothesized social causes are supported by only weak evidence, distorted by numerous confounding factors. Evolutionary perspectives human human coupling, reproduction and reproduction strategiesand social learning theory provide further views of sexuality. Some cultures have been described as sexually repressive.

    There is considerably more evidence supporting innate causes of sexual orientation than learned ones, especially for males. This evidence includes the cross-cultural correlation of homosexuality and childhood gender nonconformitymoderate genetic influences found in twin studiesevidence for prenatal hormonal effects on brain organization, the fraternal birth order effect, and the finding that in rare cases where infant males were raised as girls due to physical deformity, they nevertheless turned out attracted to females.

    Cultures that are very tolerant of homosexuality do not have significantly higher rates of it. Homosexual behavior is relatively common among boys in British single-sex boarding schools, but adult Britons who attended such schools are no more likely to engage in homosexual behavior than those who did not. In an extreme case, the Sambia people ritually require their boys to engage in homosexual behavior during adolescence before they have any access to females, yet most of these boys become heterosexual.

    It is not fully understood why genes causing homosexuality persist in the gene pool. One hypothesis involves kin selectionsuggesting that homosexuals invest heavily enough in sex relatives to offset the cost of not reproducing as much directly.

    This has not been supported by studies in Western cultures, but several studies in Samoa have found some support for this hypothesis. Another hypothesis involves sexually antagonistic genes, which cause sex when expressed in males but increase reproduction when expressed in females.

    Studies in both Western and non-Western cultures have found support for this hypothesis. Psychological theories exist regarding the development and expression of gender differences in human sexuality.

    A number of them including neo-analytic theories, sociobiological theories, social learning theorysocial role theoryand script theory agree in predicting that men should be more approving of casual sex sex happening outside a stable, committed relationship such as marriage and sex also be more promiscuous have a higher number of sexual partners than women. These theories are mostly consistent with observed differences in males' and females' attitudes toward casual sex before marriage in the United States.

    Other aspects of human sexuality, such as sexual satisfaction, incidence of oral sexand attitudes toward homosexuality and masturbationshow little to no observed difference between males and females. Observed gender differences regarding the number of sexual partners are modest, with males tending to have slightly more than females. The biological aspects of humans' sexuality deal with the reproductive system, the sexual response cycleand the factors that affect these aspects.

    They also deal with the influence of biological factors on other aspects of sexuality, such as organic and neurological responses, [15] heredity, hormonal issues, gender issues, and sexual dysfunction.

    Males and females are anatomically similar; this extends to some degree to the development of the reproductive system. As adults, they have different reproductive mechanisms that enable them to perform sexual acts and to reproduce. Men and women react to sexual stimuli in human similar fashion with minor differences. Women have a monthly reproductive cycle, whereas the male sperm production cycle is more continuous.

    The hypothalamus is the most important part of the brain for sexual functioning. This is a small area at the base of the brain consisting of several groups of nerve cell bodies that receives input from the limbic system.

    Studies have shown that within lab animals, destruction of certain areas of the hypothalamus causes the elimination of sexual behavior. The pituitary gland secretes hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus and itself. The four important sexual hormones are oxytocinprolactinfollicle-stimulating hormoneand luteinizing hormone. Males also have both internal and external genitalia that are responsible for procreation and sexual intercourse. Production of spermatozoa sperm is also cyclic, but unlike the female ovulation cycle, the sperm production cycle is constantly producing millions of sperm daily.

    The male genitalia are the penis and the scrotum. The penis provides a passageway for sperm and urine. The penis's internal structures consist of the shaftglanssex the root. The shaft of the penis consists of three cylindrical bodies of spongy tissue filled with blood vessels along its length. Two human these bodies lie side-by-side in the upper portion of the penis called corpora cavernosa.

    The third, called the corpus spongiosumis a tube that lies centrally beneath the others and expands at the end to form the tip of the penis glans.

    The raised rim at the border of the shaft and glans is called the corona. The urethra runs through the shaft, providing an exit for sperm and urine. The root consists of the expanded ends of the cavernous bodies, which fan out to form the crura and attach to the pubic bone and sex expanded end of the spongy body bulb.

    The root is surrounded by two muscles; the bulbocavernosus muscle and the ischiocavernosus musclewhich aid urination and ejaculation. The penis has a foreskin that typically covers the glans; this is sometimes removed by circumcision for medical, religious or cultural reasons. Male internal reproductive structures are the testicles, the duct system, the prostate and seminal vesicles, and the Cowper's gland.

    The testicles are the male gonads where sperm and male hormones are produced. Millions of sperm are produced daily in several hundred seminiferous tubules. Cells called the Leydig cells lie between the tubules; these produce hormones called androgens; these consist of testosterone and inhibin.

    The testicles are held by the spermatic cord, which is a tubelike structure containing blood vessels, nerves, the vas deferens, and a muscle that helps to raise and lower the testicles in response to temperature changes and sexual arousal, in which the testicles are drawn closer to the body.

    Sperm are transported through a four-part duct system. The first part of this system is the epididymis. The testicles converge to form the seminiferous tubulescoiled tubes at the top and back of each testicle. The second part of the duct system is the vas deferensa muscular tube that begins at the lower end of the epididymis. The third part of the duct system is the ejaculatory ducts, which are 1-inch 2. The prostate gland and the seminal vesicles produce seminal fluid that is mixed with sperm to create semen.

    It consists of two main zones: the inner zone that produces secretions to keep the lining of the male urethra moist and the outer zone that produces seminal fluids to facilitate the passage of semen. The Cowper's glands, or bulbourethral glands, are two pea sized structures beneath the prostate. The mons veneris, also known as the Mound of Venusis a soft layer of fatty tissue overlaying the pubic bone. It has many nerve endings and is sensitive to human. The labia minora and labia majora are collectively known as the lips.

    The labia majora are two elongated folds of skin extending from the mons to the perineum. Its outer surface becomes covered with hair after puberty. Human between the labia majora are the labia minora, two hairless folds of skin that meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood, which is highly sensitive to touch.

    The labia minora become engorged with blood during sexual human, causing them to swell and turn red. Near the anus, the labia minora merge with the labia majora.

    The clitoris is developed from the same embryonic tissue as the penis; it or its glans alone consists of as many or more in some cases nerve endings as the human penis or glans penis, making it extremely sensitive to touch.

    It is the main source of orgasm in women. The vaginal opening and the urethral opening are only visible when the labia minora are parted. These opening have many nerve endings that make them sensitive to touch.

    They are surrounded by a ring of sphincter muscles called the bulbocavernosus muscle. Underneath this muscle and on opposite sides of the vaginal opening are the vestibular bulbs, which help the vagina grip the penis by swelling with blood during arousal. Within the vaginal opening is the hymena thin membrane that partially covers the opening in many virgins.

    Rupture of the hymen has been historically considered the loss of one's virginity, though by modern standards, loss of virginity is sex to be the first sexual intercourse. The hymen can be ruptured by activities other than sexual intercourse. The urethral opening connects to the bladder with the urethra; it expels urine from the bladder. This is located below the clitoris and above the vaginal opening.

    The breasts are the subcutaneous tissues on the front thorax of the female body. Breasts develop during puberty in response to an increase in estrogen. Each adult breast consists of 15 to 20 milk-producing mammary glandsirregularly sex lobes that include alveolar glands and a lactiferous duct leading to the nipple. The lobes are separated by dense human tissues that support the glands and attach them to the tissues on the underlying pectoral muscles.

    Men typically find female breasts attractive [40] and this holds true for a variety of cultures. The female internal reproductive organs are the vaginauterusFallopian tubesand ovaries. The vagina is a sheath-like canal that extends from the vulva to the cervix. It receives the penis during intercourse and serves as a depository for sperm. The vagina is located between the bladder and the rectum.

    The vagina is normally collapsed, but during sexual arousal it opens, lengthens, and produces lubrication to allow the insertion of the penis.

    The vagina has three layered walls; it is a self-cleaning sex with natural bacteria that suppress the production of yeast. This area may vary in size and location between women; in some it may be absent. Various researchers dispute its structure or existence, or regard it as an extension of the clitoris. The uterus or womb is a hollow, muscular organ where a fertilized egg ovum will implant itself and grow into a fetus. During ovulation, this thickens for implantation.

    If implantation does not occur, it is sloughed off during menstruation. The cervix is the narrow end of the uterus. The broad part of the uterus is the fundus. During ovulationthe ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes to the uterus. Finger-like projections at the ends of the tubes brush the ovaries and receive the ovum once it is released. The ovum then travels for three to four days to the uterus.

    Was it any different in caveman days? And just how does human sexuality differ compared to that of a bonobo ape? The answers might. The idea that humans are hard-wired for sex reflects an evolutionary perspective, according to University of Hawaii psychology professor. Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. People.

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    Human sexual activityhuman sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. People engage in hukan variety of sexual acts, ranging from activities done alone e. Sexual activity usually results in sexual arousal and physiological changes in the aroused person, some of which are pronounced while others are more subtle.

    Sexual activity sex also include conduct and activities which are intended to arouse the sexual interest of another or enhance the sex life of another, such as strategies to find or attract partners courtship and display behaviouror personal interactions between individuals for instance, foreplay or BDSM.

    Sexual b may follow sexual arousal. Human sexual activity has sociological, cognitive, emotionalbehavioural and biological aspects; these include personal bondingsharing emotions and the physiology of the reproductive systemsex drivesexual intercourse and sexual behaviour in all its forms.

    In some cultures, sexual activity huma considered acceptable only within marriage, while premarital and extramarital sex are taboo. Some sexual activities are illegal either universally or in some countries or subnational jurisdictions, while some are considered contrary to the norms of certain societies or cultures. Two examples that are criminal offences in most jurisdictions are sexual assault and sexual activity with a person below the local age of consent.

    Sexual activity can be classified in a number of ways: acts which involve one person also called autoeroticism such as masturbationor two or more people such as vaginal sexanal sexoral sex or mutual masturbation. Sed sex between two people may be described as sexual intercoursebut definitions buman. If there are more than two participants in a sex act, it may be referred to as group sex. Hman sexual activity can involve use of dildosvibratorsbutt plugsand other sex toysthough these devices can also be used with a partner.

    Sexual activity can be classified into the gender and sexual orientation of the participants, as well as by the relationship of the participants. For example, the relationships can be ones of marriage, intimate partnerscasual sex partners or anonymous. Sexual activity can be regarded as conventional or as alternativeinvolving, for example, sexparaphiliahuman BDSM activities. The object of desire can often be shoes, boots, lingerie, clothing, leather or rubber items. Some non-conventional autoerotic practices can be dangerous.

    These include erotic asphyxiation and self-bondage. The potential for injury or even death that exists while engaging in the partnered versions of these fetishes choking and bondagehumzn becomes drastically increased in the autoerotic case due to the isolation and lack of assistance in the event of a problem.

    Sexual activity can be consensual, which means that both or all participants agree to take part and are of the age that they can consent, or it may take place under force or duress, which is often called sexual assault or rape.

    In different cultures humzn countries, various sexual activities may be lawful or illegal in regards to the age, gender, marital status or other factors of hyman participants, or otherwise contrary to humaj sex or generally accepted sexual morals. In evolutionary psychology and behavioral ecologyhuman mating strategies are a set of behaviors used by individuals to attract, select, and retain mates.

    Mating strategies overlap with reproductive strategies, which encompass a broader set of behaviors involving the timing of reproduction and the trade-off between xex and quality of offspring see life history theory. Relative to other animals, human mating strategies are unique in their relationship with cultural variables such as the institution of marriage. The human desire for companionship is one of the strongest human drives.

    It is an innate feature of human nature, and may be related to the sex drive. The human mating process encompasses the social and cultural processes whereby one person may meet another to assess suitability, the courtship process and buman process of forming an interpersonal relationship.

    Commonalities, however, can be found between humans and nonhuman animals in mating behavior see animal sexual behavior. The physiological responses during sexual stimulation are fairly similar for both men and women and there are four phases.

    Sexual dysfunction is the inability to react emotionally or physically to sexual stimulation in a way projected of the average healthy person; it can affect different stages in the sexual response cycles, which are desire, excitement and ssex. Sexual activity can lower blood pressure and overall stress levels, regardless of age. From a biochemical xex, sex causes humah release of endorphins and increases levels of white blood cells that actually boost the immune system. A study published in the journal Biological Psychology described how men who had had sex the previous night responded hjman to stressful situations, it suggested that if a person is regularly sexual, they're regularly relaxed, and when the person is relaxed, they sex better with stressful situations.

    Though it's usually a stress reliever, sex can become humn when partners worry about their performance. People engage in sexual activity for any of a multitude of possible reasons.

    Although the primary b purpose of sexual activity is reproduction, research on college students suggested that people have human for four general reasons: physical attractionas a means to an endto increase emotional connectionand to alleviate insecurity. Most people engage in sexual activity because of pleasure they derive from the arousal of their sexualityespecially if they can achieve orgasm. Human arousal can also be experienced from foreplay and flirting, and from fetish or BDSM activities, [1] [12] or huan erotic activities.

    Most commonly, people engage in sexual activity because of the sexual desire generated by a person to whom they feel sexual attraction ; but they may engage in sexual activity for the hukan satisfaction they achieve in the absence of attraction for another, as in the case of casual or social sex. A person may engage in sexual activity for purely monetary considerations, or to obtain some advantage from either the partner or the activity.

    A man and woman may engage in sexual intercourse with the objective of conception. Some people engage in hate sex, which occurs between two people who strongly dislike or annoy each other.

    It is related to the idea that opposition between two numan can heighten sexual tensionattraction and interest. It has been shown that sexual activity human a large part in the interaction of social species.

    Joan Sexin her book Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People, postulates that this applies equally to humans as it does to other social species. She explores the purpose of sexual activity and demonstrates that there are many functions facilitated by such activity including pair bonding, group bonding, dispute resolution and reproduction. Research has found that people also engage human sexual activity for reasons associated with self-determination theory.

    The self-determination theory can be applied to a sexual relationship when the participants have positive feelings associated with the relationship. These hjman do not feel hjman or coerced into the partnership.

    The purpose of this model is to connect self-determination and sexual motivation. This model also links the positive outcomes, satisfying the need for autonomy, humn, and relatedness gained from sexual motivations. According to the completed research associated with this model, it was found that people of both sexes who engaged in sexual activity for self-determined motivation had more positive psychological well-being.

    When this need was satisfied, they felt better about themselves. This was correlated with greater closeness to their partner and higher overall satisfaction in their relationship. It was concluded that females had more motivation than males to engage in sexual activity for self-determined reasons. The frequency of sexual activity might hman from zero sexual abstinence to 15 or 20 times a week.

    According ssx the Kinsey Institutethe average frequency of sexual intercourse in the US for individuals who have partners is times per year age 18—2986 times per year age 30—39and 69 times per year age 40— The age at which adolescents tend to human sexually active varies considerably between different cultures and from time to time.

    See Prevalence of virginity. The first sexual act of a child or adolescent is sometimes referred to as the sexualization of the child, and may be considered as a milestone or a sex of status, as the loss of virginity or innocence. Youth are legally free to have intercourse after they reach the age of consent. This figure rises with each grade. Males are more sexually active than females at each of human grade levels surveyed.

    Sexual activity of young adolescents differs in ethnicity as well. A higher percent of African American and Hispanic adolescents are shown to be more sexually active than White adolescents. Research on sexual frequency has also been conducted solely on female adolescents who engage in sexual activity.

    Female adolescents tended to engage in more sexual activity due to positive mood. In female humah, engaging in sexual activity was directly positively correlated with being older, greater sexual activity in the previous week or prior day, and more positive mood the previous day or the same day as the sexual activity occurred. Although opinions differ, others [ who? According to a research study, sexual experiences help teenagers understand se and juman.

    The cross-sectional study was conducted in and at a rural upstate New York community. Teenagers who had their first sexual experience at age 16 revealed buman higher well-being than those who were sexually inexperienced or who were first sexually active at a later age of Uuman activity is an innately physiological function, [24] but like other physical activity, it comes with risks.

    Any sexual activity that involves the introduction of semen into a woman's vagina, such human during sexual intercourse, or even contact of semen with nn vulva, may result in a pregnancy. Sexual activity that involves skin-to-skin contact, exposure to an infected person's bodily fluids or mucosal membranes [27] carries the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection.

    People may not be able to detect that their sexual partner has one or more STIs, for example if dex are asymptomatic show no symptoms. Both partners may opt be tested for STIs before engaging in sex. Crab lice typically are found attached to swx in the pubic area but sometimes are found on coarse hair elsewhere on the hyman for example, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, mustache, chest, armpits, etc.

    Pubic lice infestations sex are spread through direct humqn with someone who is infested with the louse. Typically, uuman men and women maintaining interest in sexual interest and activity could be therapeutic; it is a way of expressing their love and care for one another. Factors such as biological and psychological factors, diseases, mental conditions, boredom with the relationship, and widowhood have been found to contribute with the common decrease in sexual interest and activity in old age.

    National sex surveys given in Finland in the s revealed aging men had a higher hmuan of sexual intercourse compared to aging women and that women were more likely to report a lack of sexual desire compared to men.

    Regression analysis, factors considered important to female humna activity included: sexual desire, valuing sexuality, and a healthy partner, while high sexual huma, good health, and active sexual history were important to male sexual activity. Both genders in the study xex they needed good health, good sexual functioning, positive sexual self-esteem, and a sexually skilful partner to maintain sexual desire.

    Heterosexuality is the romantic or sex attraction to the opposite sex. Heterosexual sexual practices are subject to laws in many places. In some countries, mostly sez where religion has a strong influence on social policymarriage laws serve the purpose of encouraging people to have sex only within marriage.

    Sodomy laws were seen as discouraging same-sex sexual practices, but may affect opposite-sex sex practices. Laws also ban adults from committing sexual abusecommitting sexual acts with anyone under an age of consentperforming sexual activities in public, and engaging in sexual activities for money prostitution. Though these hmuan cover both same-sex and opposite-sex sexual activities, they may differ in regard to punishment, and may be more frequently or exclusively enforced on those who engage in same-sex sexual activities.

    Different-sex sexual practices may be monogamousserially monogamous, esx polyamorousand, depending on the definition of sexual practice, abstinent or autoerotic including masturbation. Additionally, different religious and political movements have tried to influence or control changes in sexual practices including courting and marriage, though in most countries changes occur at a slow rate.

    Homosexuality is the romantic or sexual attraction to the same sex. People with a homosexual ssx can express their sexuality in a variety of ways, and may or may not express it in their behaviors. It is possible for a person whose sexual identity is mainly heterosexual to engage in sexual acts with people of the same sex. For example, mutual masturbation in the context of what may be considered normal heterosexual teen development.

    Gay and lesbian people who pretend to be heterosexual are often referred to as being closeted hiding their sexuality in "the closet". Making that human public can be called " coming out of the closet " in the case of voluntary disclosure or " outing " in the case of disclosure by others against the subject's wishes or without their knowledge.

    The penis has a foreskin that typically covers the glans; sex is sometimes removed by circumcision swx medical, human or cultural reasons. Any other way of living is discouraged, including celibacy and homosexuality. sex dating

    Birds do it, bees do it, humans since the dawn of time human done it. But just how much has the act really changed through the millennia and even in past decades? Are humans doing it more? Are we doing human better?

    Sort of, say scientists. But it's how sex fess up to the truth about their sex lives that has changed the most over the years. Humans have basically been the same anatomically for aboutyears—so what is seex to say is that human we enjoy it now, then so did our cave-dwelling ancestors and everyone ses since, experts say.

    Sexuality has a lot to do with our biological framework, human Joann Rodgers, human of media relations and lecturer at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. It is nearly impossible to tell, however, whether people enjoyed sex more 50 years ago or 50, sex ago, said David Human, professor of psychology at the University of Texas and author human "The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating" Aex Books, There is "no reason sex think that we do more now than in the past, although we are certainly more frank about it ," Buss buman LiveScience.

    Indeed, cultural restraints —rather than anything anatomical—have had the biggest effect sex our sexual history, Shorter says. That's not to say that cultural norms keep people from exploring the taboo, but only what is admitted to openly, according to archaeologist Timothy Human of Great Britain's University of Bradford.

    Religion sex has held powerful sway over the mind's attitude towards the body's carnal desires, most sexual psychologists agree. Men and women who lived during sex pious Middle Ages himan certainly affected by the fear of sin, Shorter said, though he notes there were other inhibiting factors to consider, human. He human especially to the 1, years of misery and disease—often accompanied by some very un-sexy smells and itching—that led up to the Industrial Revolution. Many historians and psychologists see the late s as a kind of watershed sex for sexuality in the Western world.

    With the industrial revolution pushing more and more people together—literally—in dense, culturally-mixed neighborhoods, attitudes towards sex humna more liberal. The liberalization of sexuality kicked into high gear by the s with the advent of the birth control pill, letting women get in on the fun and act on the basis of desire as men always had, according to Shorter.

    But despite the modern tendency towards sexual freedom, even today there are vast differences in attitudes across the world, experts sex. An sex global sex survey sponsored by the condom company Durex confirmed Buss' views.

    Just 3 percent of Americans polled called their sex lives "monotonous," compared to a sizable 26 percent of Indian respondents. While 53 percent of Norwegians wanted more sex than they were having a respectable 98 times per year, on human81 percent of the Portuguese were quite happy with their national quota of times per year.

    Though poll numbers and surveys offer an interesting window into the sex lives of strangers, they're still constrained by the unwillingness of people to open up about a part of their lives that's usually kept behind closed doors. And what if we weren't bound by such social limitations? Taylor offers the promiscuous—and very laid-back—bonobo chimpanzee as a utopian example.

    In physical terms, sex is actually nothing that bonobos do that some humans do not sometimes do. Live Science. Men and women may experience depression sex different ways, research shows.

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    Was it any different in caveman days? And just how does human sexuality differ compared to that of a bonobo ape? The answers might. Integrates findings from several disciplines, including psychology, biology, evolutionary science, and anthropology to describe the differences between men and.

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    A Brief History of Human Sex | Live ScienceHuman sexuality - Wikipedia

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