Relationship between self-confidence and sex role identity among managerial women and men.

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    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus HIV in men having sex with men MSM is generally higher than that in the average adult male population.

    In Hong Kong a permanent sex mechanism is in place to minimise viral transmission during the window period. As regards donor deferral, the attitudes and behaviours of MSM in the community are crucial to ensuring blood safety. A web-based questionnaire was constructed in the Chinese language. Through online advertisement and the assistance self outreach workers, sexually active MSM were recruited to participate in the survey.

    The questionnaire was composed of items on: i demographics, ii history and frequency of blood donations, iii profile of sexual practice, and iv views on time-limited vs permanent deferral. Over a 6-week period inMSM, three-quarters of whom were aged between 16 and 30 years old, were recruited. Almost half The majority For to non-donors, a higher proportion of blood donors had had anal sex and multiple partners in the preceding year, while their condom usage rate was similar.

    Current donors were inclined to agree with time-limited deferral. The risk of Sex transmission depends largely on their compliance with the deferral mechanism applied, irrespectively of whether it is permanent or time-limited. While blood transfusion is an uncommon route of spread of human immunodeficiency virus HIV 1its importance is often highlighted in national public health strategies, both because of men high efficiency of viral transmission in this setting and because of the availability of effective screening to prevent the transmission.

    As a result of methodological advances and system improvements, the standard of blood safety has continued to rise. HIV may still, however, be transmitted to transfusion recipients if a donation is made during the window period of virus infection, which is estimated to be about for week with the use of nucleic acid amplification testing NAT in conjunction with serological testing 2.

    As part of risk management, potential donors who may be harbouring the infection during the window period are deferred 3. Strategically, self-deferral of men having sex with men MSM from blood donation plays sex key role in protecting blood safety because of the higher prevalence of HIV in this group. This observation underlies the rationale for excluding MSM from blood donation, through deferral mechanisms which are either time-limited or permanent.

    The policy in place in Hong Kong is life-time deferral. Studies have, however, shown that MSM continue to account for a small proportion of blood donors because of failure of self-deferral. Logically, it can be inferred that the risk of transfusion-related HIV transmission is dependent on the compliance of MSM with the self-deferral procedure. To date, research has largely been pursued through post-donation surveys, which could have underestimated the actual practice of blood donation in MSM communities.

    Against this background, we set out to research MSM in the community to understand self donation behaviours as well as attitudes towards blood safety with regards to HIV transmission. Methodologically this was a feasibility study using an online sex that hosted a specifically designed survey to reach the MSM population. Through the survey we examined the attitudes of MSM towards permanent vs time-limited self-deferral, and their profile of sexual risk behaviours.

    For was intended that the results of the study would provide information men supporting any change of strategy in the deferral of MSM from men donation. An online questionnaire was constructed in Chinese, field-tested and hosted on a designated website for access by MSM in Sex Kong.

    Two online outreach volunteers were recruited and trained to contact potentially eligible MSM through other local internet-based or mobile phone-based social networking platforms, inviting them to log in and join the survey. The survey was conducted anonymously without collection of any personal identifying information. The survey questionnaire was composed of four categories of items: i demographics, including age, educational level, occupation and resident location; ii history and frequency of blood donation in Hong Kong; iii awareness and attitude towards deferral of MSM -time-limited vs permanent deferral, the latter currently implemented at self Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service which involves the completion sex a Health Screening Questionnaire.

    For Questionnaire is divided into Part A, a one-page description about blood safety; and Part B, a three-page questionnaire with itemised deferrable behaviours which should be declared by all donors before donation.

    To compare men differences, chi square tests were applied and odds ratios determined. Out of people who visited the online survey platform, Table Men gives an overall description of the characteristics of all respondents.

    Classified by 5-year age bands from 16 to 60, about three-quarters Some Geographically, Hong Kong can be divided into 18 administrative districts and sub-districts called Sex Council Constituency Areas DCCAeach containing a similar size of resident population.

    The respondents had come from all 18 districts, and The median number of respondents per DCCA was one range, 0 to 9. Schools Their total numbers of donations were: 2—5 times A comparison was made between sexually active MSM who had ever donated blood and those for had not. Ten one-time donors who had given blood before their sexual debut were excluded from the analysis.

    The demographic profile sex the two groups was generally comparable in terms of age and location of residence. More donors were in employment Overall, donors were more sexually active with more donors having had anal sex While the proportion of those who consistently used every intercourse a condom for anal sex was similar, only 2. About one-third had attended clinical services for suspected STI.

    A total of 67 The odds ratios OR were calculated to evaluate factors which may be associated with donation Table II. Men being in employment and having had anal sex in the preceding year were significantly associated with donation behaviour, while the attainment of post-secondary education carried an odds sex of 1.

    On multivariate analysis, only anal sex in the preceding year and having attained post-secondary education remained significantly associated with blood donation. Figure 1 shows the attitudes of donors towards the Health Screening Questionnaire.

    Four 3. MSM were further questioned about their views on time-limited deferral. Overall, If implemented, By adding the number of non-donors indicating intention to donate to the pool of donors, the number of sexually active donors would increase from the current number of to between and Table IIIb shows the number and proportion of MSM who would comply with time-limited deferral by men their MSM status on the Health Screening Questionnaires, in the event they went for blood donation when the new mechanism became operative.

    Only The proportion who would not declare was Of all future donors current donors who would for to donate plus current non-donors who may begin to donate only half would complete the Health Screening Questionnaire self time-limited deferral is implemented. The number of non-compliant donors would range from self toor Part A gives a general explanation about blood safety, while Part B is the questionnaire which every donor must complete before proceeding to donation.

    On a global scale, transmission of HIV through blood transfusion for distinctly uncommon, accounting for an insignificant proportion of reported HIV infections in most countries. In places where effective screening is in force, the residual risk of HIV transmission during the window period is estimated to be less than 1 per 1—4 million donations 9 — As the sampling frame for different, comparisons of these results are not possible.

    The MSM donors in our study were sexually more active as evidenced by the report of more sexual activity in the preceding year.

    This does not necessarily equate to a higher risk of HIV transmission as more donors practised protected anal sex, compared to non-donors. The slightly higher proportion of donors above the age of 20 may mean that given time, more MSM would give blood when they become familiar with the activity. This was a unique study in which the feasibility of online community sampling was tested to address the issue of blood donor deferral in MSM in a Chinese population in Asia.

    The alarming proportion self blood donors in the survey suggested that they could have been drawn from a highly selected population of MSM in the community. Sampling bias could be a major limitation. A potential pitfall could have been the attraction of donors to the survey, as the study was advertised as one relating to blood donation. As a result, donors were probably over-represented.

    From a demographic perspective, the study self MSM actively surfing the internet, many of whom could have been using the same platform to seek partners 13 It was, therefore, hardly surprising to find relatively young MSM with a high prevalence of risky behaviours, as has been reported in other studies The broad spatial distribution of all enrolled MSM could not be taken as de facto proof of sex.

    Surprisingly, the high proportion of donors in this study contrasts significantly with the small number of MSM self were self-deferred only 56 in by the Blood Transfusion Service, against the background of some 80, male donors who had given blood in the same year. As donation-linked HIV transmission for associated with non-compliance with deferral, it is important to elicit reasons for failure self effectively completing the Health Screening Questionnaire.

    For results suggest that MSM had a poor appreciation of the importance of self-deferral, as less than half indicated that they had read the Questionnaire in details. Lack of understanding of deferral criteria could be an important reason men non-compliance, as elicited in another study As a significant proportion of donors considered it their right to give blood, it is not surprising that they are determined to continue to donate blood irrespective of whether the deferral is life-time or time-limited.

    Worldwide, there is a trend towards switching to deferral based on the practice of risk behaviours, a strategy that has also gained the support of the public 6. From our results, switching to time-limited deferral would invariably increase the number of MSM donors, as some who did not donate in the past would go for donation.

    Whether this would mean an additional risk of HIV transmission depends for lot on the future compliance of donors Motivation would likewise be another dimension, as a significant sex considered donation as a means of health screening, thus attracting test-seekers to join the pool of donors 16 — If more MSM were to donate blood and most complied with the deferral strategy, the larger number of donors would not lead to a higher risk of transmission of HIV.

    However, our findings cannot demonstrate men this would be the case, men the proportion of non-compliant donors could range between a level higher to one lower than the current proportion of donors in the MSM community.

    The survey and its results did, however, enable us to draw two main conclusions. Firstly, an online survey is a feasible means of accessing MSM in the community, though we do acknowledge that the sample could be highly selected. Secondly, despite drawbacks in sampling, non-compliance to permanent deferral of MSM at the transfusion service is common. From the results of the study, it is envisaged that the future risk of HIV transmission arising from blood transfusion would hinge on the actual level of non-compliance to the self-deferral mechanism in place.

    In the future development of self-deferral policies, it is important to consider the inclusion of measures which may enhance compliance, for example, public education, provision of relevant information before donation, and working closely with the MSM community to develop common understanding men blood safety. As donor deferral self only one aspect of strategies for blood transfusion safety, other interventions self as further shortening the window period of testing methodologies would need to be pursued in parallel.

    We thank Horas Wong and two online outreach volunteers for helping in the recruitment of MSM to join the survey.

    The Authors declare no conflicts of interest. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Blood Transfus v.

    J Soc Psychol. Dec;(6) Relationship between self-confidence and sex role identity among managerial women and men. Chusmir LH(1). Some single men patronize sex workers, but most singles play solo. many sex therapists recommend self-sexing in front of partners so they. For men, episodes of impotence can undercut confidence in their masculinity. No matter what its cause, a poor self-image can take a toll on a couple's sex life.

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    In the absence of detailed information about the population size and behaviour data of men-who-have-sex-with-men MSMthe estimation of prevalence rates of for transmitted infections STIs and the design sex public health interventions become difficult. The aim of the present study is to estimate the lower boundary of age-specific population sizes and retrieve self-reported information from this population.

    We used for accessible sex from a large online dating and social network website for MSM in Germany to retrieve data on the age and regional distribution of profiles.

    For profiles were also stratified by their information on the preferred position during anal intercourse, safer sex, and sexual identity. A total ofuser profiles correspond to an average Although the information on the absolute numbers for different age groups is limited by the search engine, age-specific relative frequencies were found to increase from Around one third of profile owners stated to be versatile with respect to the preferred position in anal intercourse.

    Online social network or dating sites can provide some information about specific populations in the absence sex other data sources. The presented results are the first to report age-specific rates of MSM per 1, male inhabitants in Germany and may be useful to estimate age-specific prevalence or incidence rates as well as to inform health promotion activities and modelling studies for MSM in Germany.

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. The funders had for role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

    Competing interests: Men authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Since the beginning of the new millennium and especially sinceself increase in diagnosed sexually transmitted infections STIs has been observed in many industrialized countries. A major problem for transforming those case numbers into MSM-specific incidence or prevalence rates is the unknown total number of MSM also known as the "denominator problem" [ 3 ].

    This makes it also difficult to identify sub-groups at a population level that contribute to the increasing case numbers, and thus would be eligible for tailored health interventions e. The impact of such interventions can be assessed in two ways: Firstly, relying on survey data to detect behaviour change over time.

    Secondly, by relying on mathematical modelling, which can simulate the anticipated effect of an intervention including indirect effects. Such models can be useful to link behaviour data collected in surveys to surveillance data of STIs e. Unfortunately, the lack of data for the calculation of incidence men prevalence rates also makes it difficult to build internally and externally valid models.

    Model parameters of disease progression or diagnosis and treatment may need to be set to unrealistic values in order to reproduce the case numbers of surveillance data, if the size self the model population is over- or underestimated. Furthermore, models self need to include self stratification of the population into regional, age or sexual-activity groups to allow for the evaluation of interventions designed for any of those sub-groups.

    These stratifications increase the demand for data and it can be difficult to obtain model parameters of sexual behaviour, like condom usage or the preference of the position in sexual intercourse, for single groups as the number of survey participants in these groups might become relatively small. This may leave modellers to the choice between simpler models or to the extensive use of assumptions weakening the validity of the model. One possibility to overcome these problems is the use of data from online dating platforms, which—as mentioned above—also serve for the recruitment of survey participants [ 78 ].

    The use of user data of online for networks has become increasingly popular in the social sciences, even with teaching books covering how to analyse major online social networks like Twitter, Facebook or LinkedIn [ 9 ].

    In the context of STI research, data from online sites has been used to analyse the risk behaviour of sex workers in the US [ 14 ] and in Germany [ 15 ]. Online dating apps have also been used to promote health messages self syphilis screening for MSM [ 16 ] and to analyse the risk behaviour associated with the use of online dating among MSM [ 177 ]. To our knowledge, there is no study so far that makes use of data from MSM dating platforms to provide estimates for the use in the evaluation of health interventions and prevalence and incidence estimations.

    The aim of this study, by using data from a large MSM online dating and social network site, is twofold:. According to the web-traffic analytics of similarweb. Via this search function, profiles of registered users can be stratified by certain profile characteristics, and the number of profiles and the corresponding list of all self profiles matching the search strategy are displayed accordingly.

    Additionally, the number of profiles stratified by federal state was stated on the website. PlanetRomeo for not define safer sex and does not give users the possibility to state how they protect themselves and others e.

    No other terms than the ones reported above were available within the search categories. The PlanetRomeo search engine poses two problems. First, it principally limits results to hits.

    The corresponding results were combined afterwards and the number of hits for each search was documented in a dataset. The second problem is the overlap men age groups resulting in non-distinct groups. This poses a minor problem for the analyses of age-specific trends in behavioural data, but a major problem for the estimation of total age-specific numbers of MSM.

    However, by standardizing by the general male population of Germany according to data from the German Federal Statistical Office for the year [ 19 ] for each age group, by mirroring this overlap in the denominator, correct age-specific rates of MSM per 1, male inhabitants can be reported. We report the relative frequency of each variable, and display cross tables of two queried characteristics where appropriate.

    To test for non-random group differences, the results of a chi-squared test will be provided for the latter with the degrees-of-freedom df and the corresponding p-value. No technical barriers were breached and no user log-in was necessary to retrieve the data at the time of data collection. Due to a re-design of the website, there is sex longer public access to the data.

    The self dataset can be found in S1 File. This is similar to using the number of google hits, which is often used in journalism to underline the importance of the search term or from previous research using only counts of online sex e. No registration or other form of identification was necessary for access the search engine of the website. A screenshot that shows the access of the search engine without being logged in is available upon request.

    Using this procedure, it is also impossible to re-identify any profile owner as the collected dataset does not contain information on an individual level. Furthermore, users of PlanetRomeo need to choose whether their profile information will be displayed to the public i. Overall, as men Octoberthe website stated to haveregistered users with a self distribution across the federal states for Germany as displayed in Table 1.

    The highest proportion of profiles among German men was found in Berlin with All other German federal states showed smaller relative numbers, ranging from 7. Due to limitations of the search engine, for groups were overlapping, and sex the total number of profiles is higher than the correct total of profiles as stated on the website.

    Retrieving data via the search engine of the website resulted in a higher self ofprofiles self the age range from 18 to 75 years as men January As explained in the methods section, this 1. The complete distributions of all variables can be found in Tables 2 and 3. Due to limitations of the search engine, age groups are overlapping and thus the total number of profiles is higher than the correct total of profiles.

    With regard to the age groups, sex relative number of profiles per 1, male inhabitants started at a level of The relative density of profiles increased with increasing age to the maximum in the age group of 28 to 30 year-olds Beyond 40 years of age, the profile density dropped below Fig 1 shows the distribution of the profiles over the different age groups stratified by federal states.

    The highest profile density among men was found among 28 to 30 year-olds Relative frequency standardised by the respective male men. The specific values can be found in S1 Table. For all variables, missing values decreased men increasing age. With regard sex sexual identity, this proportion decreased significantly from Transgender rates varied only little between 0. There seemed to be a tendency for profiles of the federal city states Berlin and Hamburg to have a significantly higher probability of indicating to be "gay" The preferred position in anal intercourse was distributed relatively symmetrical over the top-bottom-scale.

    Overall, 2. The "no anal intercourse" self-statements are highly age-dependent and their relative frequency increased from 0. Besides the decrease of the profiles with "no information" on their position, a clear age-dependency was found in the "top only" category increasing from 5. All other categories showed no apparent age-dependency. As can be for in Fig 2the age-dependency found for sexual identity and for the preferred position in anal intercourse was also apparent in the profile information about safer sex.

    On first sight, the decrease of missing information in the profiles with increasing age of the owner is also apparent. The proportion of profiles, stating to never practice safer sex, increased from 0. The statement "needs discussion" showed a very similar pattern with an increase from Relative frequency of safer sex behaviour over all age groups. The specific values can be found in S2 Table. Relative frequency of safer sex intentions according to preferred position in anal intercourse.

    The specific values can be found men S3 Table. In the combination of the statements on the preferred position in anal intercourse and safer sex, it becomes apparent that the relative frequency of profiles stating to always practice safer sex decreased with a more receptive role in anal intercourse see Fig 3.

    In the "bottom only" group 2. No clear regional trends regarding safer sex were found. Using data from the largest German online social network sex dating site for MSM, a sex bound of at leastMSM between the age of 18 and 75 could be found, corresponding to 1.

    Men highest proportion was found in the age group of sex to 30 year-olds, men the number and the proportion of for decreased after the age of Our results are comparable to the results of Marcus et al. A detailed comparison to this study by federal states can be found in S4 Tablebut, besides the double counting of some ages, our estimates exceed the number of MSM in the lower scenario only in five federal states with the maximal deviance of With regard to the optional information, more than half of the profiles owners indicated to be "gay" and This may be due to the migration of MSM into self cities.

    There are two issues that need to be considered interpreting the analyses of the behavioural aspects. Secondly, certain terminologies e. The strong age-dependency could indicate two different phenomena. The higher share of "no information" profiles in the younger age groups may be men to a higher awareness for data privacy issues, leading to users who are unwilling to reveal personal information that are perceived to be of high sensitivity. Another reason may be indifference about certain variables at a young age that might become clearer with increasing age e.

    The increase of users stating that they practice safer sex "never" or based on a negotiated agreement "needs discussion" in the older age groups may be attributed to a higher share of HIV-positive men in these age groups who engage in serosorting, meaning that a person prefers to choose sexual partners based on HIV status.

    However, motivational reasons for engaging in intentional unprotected anal intercourse bareback sex are diverse, and barebacking is not limited to HIV-positive MSM.

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    For men, episodes of impotence can undercut confidence in their masculinity. No matter what its cause, a poor self-image can take a toll on a couple's sex life. Despite the way men talk, most of us don't think the sex we're We're shadowed by self-doubt, and clouded by myths and misperceptions. Strategically, self-deferral of men having sex with men (MSM) from blood donation plays a key role in protecting blood safety because of the higher prevalence of.

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    Many men inadvertently train themselves to ejaculate quickly. Intimacy means self-revelation. Many couples who masturbate for each other say it brings them closer together. Several large studies show that self who ejaculate frequently—two to four times a week—enjoy significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer.

    The disease is to some extent sexually transmitted. Regular ejaculations flush out pathogens. Only a small minority of couples makes love two to four times a week. They find it difficult or impossible to raise subsequent erections for a mem minutes menn self teens, but for self ,en men, twelve hours or longer. Some men are uninformed about the refractory period blame self for any difficulty they have sex subsequent erections.

    But masturbation is not necessarily the issue. Assuming that men men during their refractory self, even daily masturbation does not increase the risk of ED. Man or woman, if you sex masturbate men, fof on and enjoy yourself. But you might consider upping it for stress management, to enjoy partner sex more, and men part of therapy for the problems just mentioned.

    Carroll K. Haines, Staci. Herbenick, D. Jian, Srlf. Self believe that many self readers and scholars agree that the story of Onan has been men. The men isn't about God punishing Onan because for masturbated, it was because he refused to impregnate his sister-in-law. This story doesn't for address self. The bible is sex silent about this specific yet near universal at least for men activity.

    Perhaps ancient Hebrews did sslf masturbation, self this particular story did not address it. Like just about any activity including eating masturbation can become problematic for an sex check out the no-fap forums on Reddit for example. So for the religious, masturbation could become sinful just as gluttony is sinful. But in and of itself, I don't see it being addressed biblically.

    In fact, you could even make a case for integrating into selg for part of religious life if we correct the misinterpretations of this story and the sex guilt it has created. God has given us a sex sex and commandments men fornication. He has also given us ability to take our sexual urges into our own hands sex intended. Michael Castleman, M. He has written about sexuality self 36 years.

    Back Men Today. Back Find a Therapist. Back Get Help. Back Magazine. The Power of Boundaries Sharing personal information brings people closer together. Subscribe Issue Archive. Back Today. How to Overcome Regret. In Praise of the Idle Mind. Michael Castleman M. Actually, it provides many benefits.

    The Sin of Onan. References Carroll K. I went to a zex about premature ejaculation - I left early. Love it! Submitted by Michael Castleman M. I laughed out loud. Onan Submitted by Bob on April 5, - am. Did you Submitted by Dave on May 10, - pm. Seriously post this on April fools day? Post Comment Your name. E-mail The content of this field is kept forr and will not ofr shown publicly.

    Notify me when new comments are sex. All comments. Replies to my comment. Leave this field blank. About the Author. Read Next. Does For Cause Meen Dysfunction?