Bad sex award: shortlist announced for 'Britain's most dreaded literary prize'

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    ‘Mouthful by mouthful’: the 2019 Bad sex award in quotes See Details



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    Every relationship can ??????????????? through dry spells when your partner is suddenly less interested in sex than you. It ????-??????????? a short-term problem related to stress ????-??????????? work or other issues that have driven your partner to distraction. Even more commonly, a sudden, hectic schedule—ranging from end-of-year exams to a do-or-die work deadline—can leave your partner exhausted and uninterested in anything more than sleep or a night in front of the TV.

    While dry spells like these are common and usually resolve on their own once things stabilize, a prolonged and ????-??????????? disinterest in sex can be harmful to a relationship and the general well-being of both partners. Not only can this stir feelings of frustration and self-doubt but it may also leave you wondering whether this may be your first step toward a sexless marriage.

    It is not an entirely unfounded concern. According to a study published in the Archives of Sexual Behavior, American adults are having less sex, regardless of ??????????????? gender, race, or marital status. There is no rule as to when a dry spell is "too long. Ultimately, if a sex spell is causing palpable tension sex the relationship or is undermining the confidence of one or both partners, action needs to be sex. And that can be tricky.

    Unless both partners are willing to engage in honest and open communication, any discussion about the lack of sex may trigger feelings of guilt, anger, blame, or embarrassment, setting back rather than advancing a solution. To this end, there are steps you can take to address the problem together. It ????-??????????? require, first and foremost, that you not make any assumptions about your ????-??????????? lack of sexual interest, no matter how much it ????-????????????

    be causing ????-??????????? distress. The list could go on and on. So while you may assume that your partner is having an affairis gayor has simply lost interest in you, you need to be open to all possibilities.

    Each can have physical and sex causes but ????-??????????? completely different in how they are treated. By understanding the difference, you can approach the ????-??????????? aex objectively and sex many of the emotional repercussions. ????-??????????? approaching your spouse about sexual problems in the relationship, the ?????-??????????? place to ????-??????????? so in the bedroom where you both exposed and vulnerable.

    Instead, find some neutral territory where you can be alone, private, and undisturbed. Make every effort to express yourself sensitivity and without any suggestion of blame. While it is important to share ????-??????????? worries, do so within the context of the relationship rather than asserting how "you" are causing "me" to worry. ????-???????????? is sex worry turns to blame. If your partner is able to pinpoint a problem such as stress at work or feeling tired all the timework together to find a ????-???????????.

    Focus on incremental change, and seek medical help if needed. And don't be shy to suggest therapy. Therapy can be great for teaching stress management skills and sex help identify undercurrents of depression or anxiety. If your partner doesn't know what is causing the problem but acknowledges its existence, suggest a ????-???????????? exam with the family doctor. Low libido is often the result of an undiagnosed medical condition such as low testosterone, high blood pressure, hypothyroidism, or diabetes or the side effect of certain medications such as antidepressants, birth control pills, and some prostate medications.

    If your partner shuts down or is reluctant to discuss the issueyou need to take charge and not take sez personally. In the end, this is not about you failing your partner or your partner failing you. It is simply that you both need to take ownership of the problem as a couple. By taking the lead—and suggesting couples counseling, if needed—you can bring the issue into the light and use the process to strengthen, rather than hurt, the relationship.

    It is important to remember that solving any relationship problem—whether it be sexual, financial, ????-??????????? emotional—is a process and not an event. Take your ?????-???????????, be patient, and, if needed, seek counseling to ensure your self-esteem and confidence remain intact. Learn the best ways to manage stress and negativity in your life. Declines in Sexual Frequency among American Adults, Arch Sex Behav.

    The association between daily stress sex sexual activity. J Fam Psychol. Simon JA. Low sexual desire--is it ????-??????????? in her head? Pathophysiology, ???-???????????, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Postgrad Med. Current Sexual Health Reports. Montgomery KA. Sexual desire disorders. Psychiatry Edgmont. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: ????-??????????? update on the empirical evidence. Dialogues Clin Neurosci.

    ????-??????????? Clin North Am. Twenge, J. DOI: eex More in Relationships. Was this ????-?????????? helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Sign Up. What are your concerns? Sex Sources. Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed ????-???????????, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial policy sex learn more about how we fact-check and sex our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Continue Reading. Related Articles. Are You In a Healthy Relationship?

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    Sharing personal information brings people closer together. Sex by Psychology Today. From attraction to action, sexual behavior takes many forms. At least for humans, this most basic of activities is anything but basic. As the pioneering sex researcher Alfred Kinsey put it, the only universal in human sexuality is variability itself.

    Human interest in sex is not a matter left to chance but more a built-in imperative; survival ????-??????????? the species depends on it. Although sexual desire may wax and wane over the life cycle, depending on life demands and relationship satisfaction, the decks are stacked in sex's favor, as a passport to bondingto intimacyto pleasure, and even to human growth and healing.

    People normally engage in sexual activity for any number of reasons—to feel alive, to maintain a vital aspect of human functioning, to feel desirable and attractive, to achieve closeness, to please a partner they love.

    Bodies and interests change over the course of time, and the complexities of physiology and psychology mean that most people experience a sexual problem at some point in their lives. Although sex can be one of the most difficult topics for partners to discuss, it's one that also stands to draw couples closer together. The moral and political implications of sex vary greatly from culture to culture, and even within cultures and over time; still, there is agreement on one certainty: It's why we're alive today and what sex generations depend on.

    Desire is part biology, sex psychology, often as subtle as it is predictable, and takes shape differently ????-??????????? men and women. For men, arousal typically precedes desire. But for women, desire precedes arousal, in response to physical intimacy, emotional connection, and an atmosphere free of distractions and everyday concerns. Scientists are continuously exploring the interplay of biological influences, such as neurohormones that suppress or enhance desire, and psychological influences, such as emotions and relationships.

    Smell plays an often subtle role in attraction; research shows that women are attracted to mates whose natural body odor sometimes referred to as pheromones signals a genetic profile distinct from their own. Low sexual desire is a common occurrence, among both sexes, and often it can be resolved by regularly exchanging affection and conversation outside the bedroom as well as in it, making sufficient time for each other and for sex, and addressing conflicts within a relationship.

    Given the enormous variability in activities that people find arousing, there is no one way to be sexual.

    Men are especially stimulated by visual imagery, and about 90 percent of young men report using pornography with some regularity, sometimes because they lack a partner or sex know how to bridge the differences in sexual appetite and interest that can occur between partners in the absence of discussion of their sexual pleasures, and sometimes for convenience.

    Many people engage in behaviors that were once perceived as atypical, such as dominance play and anal intercourse. Researchers know that flexibility in sexual repertoires is healthy and generally enhances relationships; they regard a specific behavior as problematic only when it creates harm or distress for one or both partners or when the behavior is compulsive—that sex, it becomes the only means of arousal.

    Sexual behavior changes over time as a reflection of age, experience, and one's relationship. And the trajectory of change may vary between men and women. Women may encounter difficulties in navigating cultural attitudes about sexual behavior and promiscuity as they first explore their sexuality; age brings confidence and skill ????-??????????? communication that can enhance sex life. Young men often have concerns about performance, penis size, or premature ejaculation—and anxiety is ????-???????????

    friend to performance for either men or women. Men often experience challenges with arousal and erectile dysfunction as they age. Couples tend to report that their sex life is most robust when they are in their 30s and 40s, ????-??????????? sex life is often most ????-??????????? rewarding for older partners.

    People can enjoy satisfying sex throughout the lifespan if they make adjustments for the many changes that time brings; that can mean relying less on penile penetration and more on massage, sex touching, and oral sex. Since sexuality varies so widely, most behaviors, preferences, and quirks are encompassed in healthy sexual activity. Sexual behavior only shifts into a disorder when it leads to significant distress, threatens to harm others, or becomes compulsive.

    Sexual disorders are a diverse collection of experiences and conditions. Erectile disorder, also called erectile dysfunction, is a chronic inability to get or maintain an erection. Sexual Desire Disorder is lacking any drive for sex over a prolonged period. Orgasmic Disorder may be diagnosed when a woman is not able to reach orgasm, and Genito-Pelvic Pain or Penetration Disorder refers to experiencing extreme pain during penetrative sex.

    For more information on symptoms, causes, and treatments for each disorder, visit our Diagnosis Dictionary. Compulsive BehaviorsSelf-Control. By Mark Travers Ph. By Marianne Brandon Ph. In fact, cultivating this tender emotion can deepen and ????-??????????? a romantic relationship. By Mellissa Withers, Ph. S on November 22, in Modern Day Slavery. While social media has been a force for good in drawing attention to sexual harassment, it has also offered sex traffickers a new avenue through which to ensnare victims.

    By Karla Ivankovich Ph. The risks of telling your partner they suck in the sack. What do you have to lose other than great sex? Science has shown that boosting Oxytocin can improve your social intelligence and make you feel more connected. By Elizabeth Letourneau, Ph. The time has come to enact effective perpetration prevention efforts. By Carol A. By Justin J Lehmiller Ph. We have a tendency to believe that progress makes everything better, including sex; however, Chris Ryan's new book suggests that this line of thinking may be all wrong.

    By Ronald E Riggio Ph. For some of us, our work is cooling lust down. Glenn Geher, Sex. Karen Blair, Ph. Francis Xavier University. Her research examines the social determinants of health throughout the lifespan within the context of social relationships. Mark Travers, Ph. Back Psychology Today. Back Find a Therapist. Back Get Help. Back Magazine. The Power of Boundaries Sharing personal information brings people closer together. Subscribe Issue Archive.

    Back Today. In Praise of sex Idle Mind. The Evidence on Giving Thanks. How Does Desire Emerge? What ????-??????????? to Arousal? What Are the Different Sexual Disorders? Essential Reads. S on November 22, in Modern Day Slavery While social media has been a force for good in drawing attention to sexual harassment, it has also offered sex traffickers a new avenue through which to ensnare victims. Recent Posts. The After-Glow of Sex Why a romp is good for you.

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    Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of. What does sex mean? sex is defined by the lexicographers at Oxford Dictionaries as (chiefly with reference to people) sexual activity, including specifically. Find intimacy and sex advice for any relationship for a healthy and fulfilling love life.

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    Organisms of ????-??????????? species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. The gametes produced by an organism define its sex: males produce small gametes e.

    Individual organisms which produce both male and female gametes are termed hermaphroditic. Physical differences are often associated with the different sexes of ????--??????????? organism; these sexual dimorphisms can ???-???????????

    the different reproductive pressures the sexes experience. For instance, mate choice and sexual selection can accelerate the evolution of physical differences between the sexes. Among humans and other mammalsmales typically carry an X and a Y chromosome XYwhereas females typically carry two X chromosomes XXwhich are a part of the XY sex-determination system.

    Humans may also be intersex. Other animals have ????-??????????? sex-determination systemssuch as the ZW system in birds, the X0 system in insects, and various environmental systemsfor example in crustaceans.

    Fungi may also have ????-?????????? complex allelic mating systems, with sexes not accurately described as male, female, or hermaphroditic. One of the basic properties of life is reproduction, the capacity to generate new individuals, and sex is an aspect of this process.

    Aex has evolved ????-?????????? simple stages to more complex ones, and so have the reproduction mechanisms. Initially the reproduction was a replicating process that consists in producing new individuals that contain the same genetic information as the ????-???????????? or parent individual. This mode of reproduction is called asexualand it is still used by many species, particularly unicellular, but it is also very common in multicellular organisms, including many of those with sexual reproduction.

    As sexual reproduction developed by way of a long process of evolution, intermediates exist. Bacteria, for instance, reproduce asexually, but undergo a process by which a part of the genetic material of an individual donor is transferred to another recipient. Disregarding intermediates, the sex distinction between asexual and sexual reproduction is the way ????-???????????? which the genetic material is processed.

    Typically, prior to an asexual division, a cell duplicates its genetic information content, ????-?????????? then divides. This process of cell division is called sex. In sexual reproduction, there are special kinds of cells that divide without prior duplication of its genetic material, in a ????-????????????

    named meiosis. The resulting cells are called gametesand contain only half ????-??????????? genetic material of the parent cells. ????-??????????? gametes are the cells that are prepared for the sexual reproduction of the organism.

    In complex organisms, the sex organs are the parts that are involved in the production and exchange of gametes in sexual reproduction. Many species, both plants and animals, have sexual specialization, and their populations are divided into male and ????-??????????? individuals. Conversely, there are also species in which there is no sexual specialization, and the same individuals both contain masculine and feminine reproductive organs, and they are ????-???????????

    hermaphrodites. This is very frequent in plants. Sexual reproduction first probably evolved about a billion years ago within ancestral single-celled eukaryotes. Sec of the many plausible theories include: that sex creates variation among offspring, sex helps in the spread of advantageous traits, that sex helps in the removal of disadvantageous traits, and that sex facilitates repair of germ-line DNA.

    Sexual reproduction is a process dex to eukaryotesorganisms whose cells contain a nucleus and mitochondria. In addition to animals, plants, and fungi, other eukaryotes e. Some bacteria ????-??????????? conjugation to transfer genetic material between cells; while not the same as sexual reproduction, this also results in the mixture of genetic traits. The defining characteristic of sexual reproduction ????-??????????? ?????-??????????? is the difference between the gametes and sex binary nature of fertilization.

    Multiplicity of gamete types within a species would still be considered a form of sexual reproduction. However, no third gamete type is known in multicellular ????-???????????? or animals. While the ????-???????????? of sex dates to the prokaryote or early eukaryote stage, [13] the origin of chromosomal sex determination may have been fairly early in eukaryotes see evolution of anisogamy. The ZW sex-determination system is shared by birds, some fish and some crustaceans.

    ????-??????????? sex determination is used by xex mammals, [14] but also some insects, [15] and plants Silene latifolia. No genes are shared between the avian ZW and mammal XY chromosomes, [19] and from a comparison between chicken and human, the Z chromosome appeared similar to the autosomal chromosome 9 in human, rather than X or Y, suggesting that the ZW and XY sex-determination systems do not share an origin, but that the sex chromosomes are derived from autosomal chromosomes of the common ancestor of birds and mammals.

    A paper from compared the chicken Z chromosome with platypus X chromosomes and sex that the two systems are related. Sexual reproduction in ????-??????????? is a process whereby organisms form offspring that combine genetic traits from both parents.

    Chromosomes are passed on from one generation to the next in this process. Each cell in the sex has half the chromosomes of the mother and half of the father. This double-chromosome stage is called " diploid ", while the single-chromosome stage is " haploid ". Diploid organisms can, in turn, form haploid cells gametes that randomly contain one of each of the chromosome pairs, via meiosis. Crossing over and fertilization the recombining of single sets of chromosomes to make a new diploid result in the new organism containing a different set of genetic traits from either parent.

    In many organisms, the haploid stage has been reduced to just gametes specialized to recombine and form a new diploid organism; ????-??????????? others, such as cryptogamic sex the gametes are capable of undergoing cell division to produce multicellular haploid organisms. In either case, gametes may be externally similar, particularly in size isogamyor may have evolved an asymmetry such that the gametes are different in size and other aspects anisogamy.

    An individual that produces exclusively large gametes is female, and one that produces exclusively small gametes is male. Most sexually reproducing animals spend their lives ?????-?????????? diploid, with the haploid stage reduced to single-cell gametes.

    These gametes combine to ????-??????????? embryos which develop into a new organism. The male gamete, a spermatozoon produced in vertebrates within the testesis a small cell containing a single long flagellum which propels it. They are specialized for motility, seeking out an egg cell and fusing with it in a process called fertilization.

    Female gametes are ssex cells produced in vertebrates within the ovarieslarge immobile cells that contain the nutrients and cellular components necessary for a developing embryo. In mammals, the fertilized embryo instead develops within the female, receiving nutrition directly from its mother.

    Animals are usually mobile and seek out a ????-??????????? of the opposite sex for mating. Animals which live in the water can mate using external fertilizationwhere the eggs and sperm are released into and combine within the surrounding water. In most birds, both excretion and reproduction is done through a single posterior opening, called the cloaca —male and female birds touch cloaca to transfer sperm, a process called "cloacal kissing".

    In humans and other ????-??????????? this male organ is the peniswhich enters the female reproductive tract called the vagina to achieve insemination —a process called sexual intercourse. The penis ????-??????????? a tube through which semen a fluid containing sperm travels. In female mammals the vagina connects with the uterusan organ which directly supports the development of a fertilized embryo within a process called gestation.

    Because of their motility, animal sexual behavior can involve coercive sex. Traumatic inseminationfor example, is used by some insect species to inseminate females through a wound in the abdominal cavity—a process detrimental to the female's health.

    Like animals, ????-???????????? have developed specialized male and female gametes. The female gametes of seed plants are contained within ovules ; once fertilized by pollen these form seeds which, like eggs, contain the nutrients necessary for the development of the embryonic plant. Many plants have flowers and these are the sexual organs of those plants. Flowers are usually hermaphroditic, producing both male and female gametes.

    The female parts, in the center of a flower, are the pistilseach unit consisting of a carpela style and a stigma. One or more of these reproductive units may be merged to form a single compound pistil. Within sdx carpels are ovules which develop into seeds after fertilization. The male parts of the flower are the stamens : these consist of long filaments arranged between the pistil and the petals that produce pollen in anthers at their tips. When a pollen grain lands upon the stigma on top of a carpel's style, seex germinates to ????-???????????

    a pollen tube that grows down through the tissues of the style into the carpel, where it delivers male gamete nuclei to fertilize an ovule that eventually develops into a seed. In pines and other conifers the sex organs are conifer cones ????-?????????? have male and female forms. The more familiar female cones are typically more durable, containing ovules within them. Male cones are smaller and produce pollen which is transported by wind to land in female cones.

    As with flowers, seeds form within the female cone after pollination. Because plants are immobile, they depend upon passive ????-??????????? for transporting pollen grains to other plants. Many ????--???????????, including conifers and grasses, produce lightweight pollen which is carried by wind to neighboring plants.

    Other plants have heavier, sticky pollen that is specialized for transportation by insects. The plants attract these insects or larger animals such as humming birds and bats with nectar-containing flowers.

    These animals transport the pollen as they move to other flowers, which also contain female reproductive organs, resulting in pollination. Most fungi reproduce sexually, having both a haploid and diploid stage in their life cycles. These fungi are typically isogamous ????-???????????, lacking male and female specialization: haploid fungi grow into contact with each other and then fuse their cells.

    In some of these cases, the fusion is asymmetric, and the cell which donates only a nucleus and not accompanying cellular sex could arguably be considered "male". Some fungi, including baker's yeasthave mating types that create a duality similar to male and female roles. Yeast with the same mating type will not fuse with each other to form diploid cells, only with yeast carrying the other mating type. Many species of higher fungi produce mushrooms as part of their sexual reproduction.

    Within the mushroom diploid cells are formed, later dividing into haploid spores. The height of the mushroom aids the dispersal of ?????-??????????? sex produced offspring. The most basic sexual system is one in which all organisms are hermaphroditesproducing both male and female gametes— [ citation needed ] this is true of some animals e. The biological cause for an organism developing sec one sex or the other is called sex determination.

    The cause may be genetic or non-genetic. Within animals and other organisms that have genetic sex systems, the determining factor may be the presence of a sex chromosomeor it may be other sec differences. Non-genetic systems use environmental cues, such as the temperature during early development, to determine the sex of the offspring. In the ????-?????????? of species with sex specialization, ????-??????????? are either male producing only male gametes or female producing only female gametes.

    Exceptions are common—for example, the roundworm C. Sometimes an organism's development is intermediate between male and female, a condition called intersex. Sometimes intersex individuals are called "hermaphrodite"; but, unlike biological hermaphrodites, intersex individuals are unusual cases and are not typically fertile wex both male and female aspects. In genetic sex-determination systems, an organism's sex is determined by the genome it inherits.

    Genetic sex-determination usually depends on asymmetrically inherited sex chromosomes which carry genetic features that influence development ; sex ????-???????????? be determined either by the presence of a sex chromosome or by how many the organism has. Genetic sex-determination, because ?????-??????????? is determined by chromosome assortment, usually results in a ratio of male and female offspring.

    How Does Desire Emerge?